The Effect of Out of Plane Perpendicular Beams on the Ductility Demand of Steel Moment Framed Structures during Progressive Collapse

Document Type : Research Papers


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training Univeristy

2 School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 School of Civil Engineering University of Tehran


Unexpected loading, induced by severe earthquake or blast, could cause local damage to a structure. In this case, the structure has the potential of progressive collapse phenomenon. Hence, further consideration is required to mitigate the consequences of such loading. This study is aimed to evaluate the progressive collapse capacity of steel moment frames with different heights under column removal conditions. Seven and twelve story buildings modeled in different conditions in order to view effects of various parameters like the out of plane frames, column removal location, and the height of buildings in the results. One of the middle column and/or the corner columns is removed in order to evaluate the effect of column removal location in response of structures. The General Services Administration and the Department of Defense guidelines are considered for defining load combination for the analysis of the collapse. Nonlinear dynamic analysis is conducted in order to obtain the ductility demand of structures when the out of plane effect is considered. The structures have welded cover plate connections, designed for high-seismic zone area. For evaluating the response of the structures, for each connection at the point of column removal, maximum vertical displacement is measured. For Finite Element analysis, a sub-assemblage of structures is modeled using ABAQUS software and the ability of beams deformation and it’s out of plane effect is measured.


Abdollahzadeh, G., Nemati, M. and Avazeh, M. (2016). "Probability assessment and risk management of progressive collapse in strategic buildings facing blast loads", Civil Engineering Infrastructure Journal, 49(2), 427-338.
American Institute of Steel for Construction (AISC). (2003). Load resistance factor design specification for structural steel buildings, Chicago, IL.
Department of Defense (DoD) (2016). "Unified facilities criteria (Ufc) design of buildings to resist progressive collapse", Washington D.C.
Dinu, F., Marginean, I. Dubina, D. and Petran I.  (2016). "Experimental testing and numerical analysis of 3D steel frame system under column loss", Engineering Structures, 113(15), 59-70.
 Ghobadi, M.S., Mazroi, A. and Ghassemieh, M. (2009)."Cyclic response characteristics of retrofitted moment resisting connections", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65(3), 586-598.
Ghobadi, M.S., Ghassemieh, M., Mazroi, A. and Abolmaali, A. (2009)."Seismic performance of ductile welded connections using T-stiffener", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65(4), 766-775.
Guo, L., Gao, S. and Fu, F. (2015). "Structural performance of semi-rigid composite frame under column loss", Engineering Structures, 95(15), 112-126.
Jazany, R.A. and Ghobadi, M.S. (2018). "Seismic evaluation and upgrading details of plate-reinforced moment-resisting connections", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 150, 230-248.
Khandelwal, K. and El-Tawil, S. (2007). "Collapse behavior of steel special moment resisting frame connections", Journal of Structural Engineering, 133(5), 646-655.
Khandelwal, K. and El-Tawil, S. (2011). "Pushdown resistance as a measure of robustness in progressive collapse analysis", Engineering Structures, 33(9), 2653-2661.
Kheyroddin, A., Gerami, M. and Farshad, M. (2014). "Assessment of the dynamic effect of steel frame due to sudden middle column loss", The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 23, 390-402.
Kheyroddin, A., Sharbatdar, M.K. and Farahani, A. (2019). "Assessment effect of structural height on the location of key element in progressive collapse of RC structures", Civil Engineering Infrastructure Journal, 52(1), 41-58.
Kim, H.S., Kim, J. and An, D. (2009). "Development of integrated system for progressive collapse analysis of building structures considering dynamic effects", Advances in Engineering Software, 40(1), 1-8.
Kim, J. and An, D. (2009). "Evaluation of progressive collapse potential of steel moment frames considering catenary action", The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 18(4), 455-465.
Kim, J. and Kim, T. (2009). "Assessment of progressive collapse-resisting capacity of steel moment frames", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65(1), 169-179.
Kim, T. and Kim, J. (2009). "Collapse analysis of steel moment frames with various seismic connections", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65(6), 1316-1322.
Lee, C., Kim, S., Han, K. and Lee, K. (2009). "Simplified nonlinear progressive collapse analysis of welded steel moment frames", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65(5), 1130-1137.
Lee, S.Y., Noh, S.Y. and Lee, D. (2018). "Evaluation of progressive collapse resistance of steel moment frames designed with different connection details using energy-based approximate analysis", Sustainability, 10(10), 1-28.
Li, H., Cai, X.,  Zhang, L.,  Zhang, B. and Wang, W. (2017). "Progressive collapse of steel moment-resisting frame subjected to loss of interior column: Experimental tests", Engineering Structures, 150, 203–220.
Li, L., Wang, W., Chen, Y. and Lu, Y. (2013). "Experimental investigation of beam-to-tubular column moment connections under column removal scenario", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 88, 244-255.
Li, Z.X., Jiang, F.F. and Tang, Y.Q. (2012). ‘Multi-scale analyses on seismic damage and progressive failure of steel structures’, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 48(1), 1358-1369.
Marjanishvili, S. and Agnew, E. (2006). "Comparison of various procedures for progressive collapse analysis", Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 20(4), 365-374.
Mashhadiali, N. and Kheyroddin, A. (2014). "Progressive collapse assessment of new hexagrid structural system for tall buildings", The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 23(12), 947-961.
Mehr, S.M. and Ghobadi, M.S. (2017)."Seismic performance of retrofitted WFP connections joined to box column using ribs", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 137, 297-310.
Meng, B., Zhong, W. and Hao, J. (2018). "Anti-collapse performances of steel beam-to-column assemblies with different span ratios", Journal of Constructional Steel Research,140, 125-138.
Rahnavard, R., Fathi Zadeh Far, F., Hosseini, A. and Suleiman, M. (2018). "Nonlinear analysis on progressive collapse of tall steel composite buildings", Case Studies in Construction Materials, 8, 359-379.
Rezaie, F., Fakhradini, S.M. and Ghahremannejad M. (2018). "Numerical evaluation of progressive collapse potential in reinforced concrete buildings with various floor plans due to single column removal", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 51(2), 405-424.
Sadek, F., Main A., Lew, H. and El-Tawil, S. (2013). "Performance of steel moment connections under a column removal scenario II: Analysis", Journal of Structural Engineering, 139(1), 108-119.
Song, B.I., Giriunas, K.A. and Sezen, H. (2014). "Progressive collapse testing and analysis of a steel frame building", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 94, 76-83.
Tavakoli, H. and Kiakojouri, F. (2014). "Threat-independent column removal and fire-induced progressive collapse: Numerical study and comparison", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 48(1), 121-131.
US General Services Administration (GSA). (2003). "Progressive collapse analysis and design guidelines for new federal office buildings and major modernization projects", Washington D.C.
Yang, B. and Tan, K.H. (2013). "Experimental tests of different types of bolted steel beam-column joints under a central-column-removal scenario", Engineering Structures, 54, 112-130.
Yavari, H., Ghobadi, M.S. and Yakhchalian, M. (2019). "Progressive collapse potential of different types of irregular buildings located in diverse seismic sites", Heliyon, 5(1), 01137.
Zhong, W., Meng, B. and Hao, J. (2017). "Performance of different stiffness connections against progressive collapse", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 135, 162-175.
Volume 54, Issue 1
June 2021
Pages 75-92
  • Receive Date: 11 September 2019
  • Revise Date: 03 August 2020
  • Accept Date: 16 August 2020
  • First Publish Date: 28 December 2020