The Effect of the Slot Length on Beam Vertical Shear in I-Beams with Moment Connections

Document Type : Research Papers


1 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Babol University of Technology

2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology


This paper evaluates the effect of slot existence with limited length between flanges and web junction of I-shaped beams at the region of moment connections on vertical force and shear stress distribution in beam flanges and web at connection section in comparison with classical theory of stress distribution. The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of the slot in connections such as slotted web beam to column connection in modern age. The issue of the slot has many benefits but very little studies have been done on it. Accordingly, one hundred and twenty models with two moment connections under the concentrated static load in mid span have been made for doing parametric study in ANSYS Workbench finite element software. The linear static analysis was done on all constructed models. Variable parameters in these models for parametric study include slot length between flange and web junction in connection region (from 0 to 190 mm), beam length, beam section height and Poisson’s ratio of beam material. In all models the amount of shear stress in section height over the section vertical axis in connection region and also the devoted contribution from force which goes to flanges and web under the concentrated load on mid span have been calculated. Performed studies have shown that vertical shear stress distribution in beam to column connection section with moment connection differs a lot from what is stated in mechanics of materials equations. Practically the available equations in regulations which state that web receives the entire vertical shear and ignore the contribution of flanges are not reliable. In addition, studies have shown that the slot existence in junction of web and flanges in connection section with limited length can has great effect on the quality of vertical shear stress distribution over the section of connection and also the slot existence has great effect on the reduction of shear stress in flanges and increase in shear stress in web according to classical theory. As a total result, nowadays slotted web beam to column connection can be used as a fantastic and simple idea to improve modern connections behavior.


Main Subjects

Abdollahzadeh, G.R. and Ghobadi, F. (2014). “Mathematical modeling of column-base connections under monotonic loading”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 47(2), 255-272.
Ahmed, S.R., Khan, M.R., Islam, K.M.S. and Uddin, M.W. (1998). “Investigation of stresses at the fixed end of deep cantilever beams”, Computers and Structures, 69, 329-338.
AISC. (2016). Specification for structural steel buildings, American Institute of Steel Construction.
Dow, J.O., Jones, M.S. and Harwood, S.A. (1990). “A new approach to boundary modeling for Finite Difference applications in solid mechanics”, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 30, 99-113.
Dubina, D., Ciutina, A. and Stratan, A. (2001). “Cyclic tests of double-sided beam-to column joints”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 127(2), 129-136.
Durelli, A.J. and Ranganayakamma, B. (1989). “Parametric solution of stresses in beams”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 115(2), 401.
FEMA. (2000). “Recommended seismic design criteria for new steel moment frame buildings”, FEMA 350, Richmond (CA), SAC Joint Venture.
Goswami, R. and Murty, C. (2009). “Externally reinforced welded I-beam-to-box-column seismic connection”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 136(1), 23-30.
Iwankiw, N.R. and Carter, C.J. (1996). “The dog bone: A new idea to chew on, Mod”, Modern Steel Construction, AISC, 36(4), 18-23.
Jalali, S., Banazadeh, M., Abolmaali, A. and Tafakori E. (2012). “Probabilistic seismic demand assessment of steel moment frames with side-plate connections”, Scientia Iranica, 19(1), 27-40.
Kang, C.H., Kim, Y.J.d., Shin, K.J. and Oh, Y.S. (2013). “Experimental investigation of composite moment connections with external stiffeners”, Advances in Structural Engineering, 16(10), 1683-1700.
Kelly, P. (2013). Solid mechanics, engineering solid mechanics, The University of Auckland.
Lee, K.H., Goel, S.C. and Stojadinovic, B. (2000). “Boundary effects in steel moment connections”, Proceedings of 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand.
Lewei, T., Xuewei, H., Feng, Z. and Yiyi, C. (2016). “Experimental and numerical investigations on extremely-low-cycle fatigue fracture behavior of steel welded joints”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 119, 98-112.
Maleki, S. and Tabbakhha, M. (2012). “Numerical study of slotted-web-reduced-flange moment connection”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 69(1), 1-7.
Mahmoudi, M., Vatani, Oskouie A. and Havaran, A. (2013). “The effect of easy-going steel on KBF's seismic behavior”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 46(1), 81-94.
Miller, D.K. (1998). “Lessons learned from the Northridge earthquake”, Engineering Structures, 20(4-6), 249-60.
Mohamad, A., Morshedi, M.A., Dolatshahi, K.M. and Maleki, Sh. (2017). “Double reduced beam section connection”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 138, 283-297.
Nikoukalam, M. and Dolatshahi, K.M. (2015). “Development of structural shear fuse in moment resisting frames”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 114, 349-361.
Rahman, M.Z., Ahmed, T. and Imtiaz, R.M. (2013). “Investigation of stresses in a beam with fixed connection using Finite Difference technique”, Global Journal of Researches in Engineering, Mechanical and Mechanics Engineering, 13(2), Version 1.0, 7-15.
Ramirez, C.M., Lignos, D.G., Miranda, E. and Kolios, D. (2012). “Fragility functions for pre-Northridge welded steel moment-resisting beam-to-column connections”, Journal of Engineering Structures, 45, 574-584.
Ricles, J.M., Sause, R., Garlock, M.M. and Zhao, C. (2001). “Post-tensioned seismic-resistant connections for steel frames”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 127(2), 113-121.
Timoshenko, S.P. and Goodier, J.N. (1979). Theory of elasticity, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Uddin, M.W. (1966). “Finite Difference solution of two-dimensional elastic problems with mixed boundary conditions”, M.Sc. Thesis, Carleton University, Canada.
Valente, M., Castiglioni, C.A. and Kanyilmaz, A. (2017). “Numerical investigations of repairable dissipative bolted fuses for earthquake resistant composite steel frames”, Journal of Engineering Structure, 131, 275-292.
Valente, M., Castiglioni, C.A. and Kanyilmaz, A. (2017). “Welded fuses for dissipative beam-to column connections of composite steel frames: Numerical analyses”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 128, 498-511.
Vetr, M.Gh., Miri, M. and Ghaffari, F. (2012). “Seismic behavior of the Slotted Web (SW) connection on the Iranian I-shape profiles through experimental studies”, The Fifteenth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal.
Wilkinson, S., Hurdman, G. and Crowther, A. (2006). “A moment resisting connection for earthquake resistant structures”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 62(3), 295-302.
 Yu, Q.S.K., Uang, C.M. and Gross, J. (2000). “Seismic rehabilitation design of steel moment connection with welded haunch”, Journal of Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 126(1), 69-78.
Zirakian, T. (2008). “Lateral–distortional buckling of I-beams and the extrapolation techniques”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 64, 1-11.