An Energy Based Adaptive Pushover Analysis for Nonlinear Static Procedures

Document Type: Research Papers

Authors

1 Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology

2 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Alzahra, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Nonlinear static procedure (NSP) is a common technique to predict seismic demands on various building structures by subjecting a monotonically increasing horizontal loading (pushover) to the structure. Therefore, the pushover analysis is an important part of each NSP. Accordingly, the current paper aims at investigating the efficiencyof various algorithms of lateral load patterns applied to the structure in NSPs. In recent years, fundamental advances have been made in the NSPs to enhance the response of NSPs toward nonlinear time history analysis (NTHA). Among the NSPs, the philosophy of “adaptive procedures” has been focused by many researchers. In the case of utilizing adaptive procedures, the use of incremental force vector considering the effects of higher modes of vibration and stiffness deteriorationsis possible and seems that it can lead to a good prediction of seismic response of structures. In this study, a new adaptive procedure called energy-based adaptive pushover analysis (EAPA) is implemented based on the work done by modal forces in each level of the structure during the analysis and is examined for steel moment resisting frames (SMRFs). EAPA is inspired by force-based adaptive pushover (FAP) and story shear-based adaptive pushover (SSAP). FAP has applied modal forces directly into load patterns; SSAP, on the other hand, has implemented the energy method in system`s capacity curve for measuring the equivalent movement. EAPA has enforced the concept of energy directly in load pattern; so that by using the modal forces-movements an energy-based adaptive algorithm is obtained. Hence, the effects of higher modes, deterioration in stiffness and strength, and characteristics of a specific site are incorporated and reflected in applied forces on the structure. Results obtained from the method proposed a desirable accordance with the extracted results from NTHA over the height of the structure.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Abbasnia, R., Davoudi, A.T. and Maddah, M.M. (2013). "An adaptive pushover procedure based on effective modal mass combination rule", Engineering Structures 52, 654-666. 
Albanesi, T., Biondi, S. and Petrangeli, M. (2002). "Pushover analysis: An energy based approach.", Proceedings of  the 12th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, London, United Kingdom.
Amini, M.A. and Poursha, M. (2016). "A non-adaptive displacement-based pushover procedure for the nonlinear static analysis of tall building frames", Engineering Structures, 126, 586-597.
Antoniou S. and Pinho, R. (2004b). “Development and verification of a displacement-based adaptive pushover procedure”, Journal of  Earthquake Engineering, 8(5), 643-661.
Antoniou, S. and Pinho, R. (2004a). "Advantages and limitations of adaptive and non-adaptive force-based pushover procedures", Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 8(4), 497-522.
Araújo, M., Marques, M. and Delgado, R. (2014). "Multidirectional pushover analysis for seismic assessment of irregular-in-plan bridges", Engineering Structures, 79, 375-389.
ASCE 7-05, (2006). Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures,  American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston,Virginia.
ATC-40. (1996). Seismic evaluation and retrofit of concrete buildings Volume 1, by: Applied  Technology Council, Report No. SSC 96-01.
Beheshti-Aval, S.B. and Jahanfekr, E. (2015). "Modification of displacement coefficient method in estimation of target displacement for regular concrete bridges based on ASCE 41-06 standard", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 48(1), 101-120.
Beheshti-Aval, S.B. and Keshani, S. (2014). "A Phenomenological study on inelastic torsion caused by nonlinear behavior changes during earthquake excitations", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 47(2), 273-290.
Belejo, A. and Bento, R. (2016). "Improved modal pushover analysis in seismic assessment of asymmetric plan buildings under the influence of one and two horizontal components of ground motions", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 87, 1-15.
Bracci, J.M., Kunnath, S.K. and Reinhorn, A.M. (1997). "Seismic performance and retrofit evaluation of reinforced concrete structures", Journal of Structural Engineering, 123(1), 3-10.
Camara, A. and Astiz, M. (2012). "Pushover analysis for the seismic response prediction of cable-stayed bridges under multi-directional excitation", Engineering Structures, 41, 444-455.
Chopra, A.K. (2001). Dynamics of structures: Theory and applications to earthquake engineering, 2nd  Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle, New Jersey, USA.
Chopra, A.K. and Goel, R.K. (2002). "A modal pushover analysis procedure for estimating seismic demands for buildings", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 31(3), 561-582.
Chopra, A.K. and Goel, R.K. (2004). "A modal pushover analysis procedure to estimate seismic demands for unsymmetric plan buildings", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 33(8), 903-927.
Chopra, A.K. Goel, R.K. and Chintanapakdee, C. (2004). "Evaluation of a modified MPA procedure assuming higher modes as elastic to estimate seismic demands", Earthquake Spectra, 20(3), 757-778.
Elnashai,  A.S. and Sarno, L.Di. (2008). Fundamentals of earthquake engineering, Wiley, New York.
 Eurocode 8,EN 1998-1. (2004).  Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures, Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels.
FEMA 356 . (2000). Prestandard and commentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings, Prepared by: American Society of Civil Engineers , Reston, Virginia .
FEMA 440 . (2005). Improvement of nonlinear static seismic analysis procedures, Prepared for: Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
Ferracuti, B. Pinho, R. Savoia, M. and Francia, R. (2009). "Verification of displacement-based adaptive pushover through multi-ground motion incremental dynamic analyses", Engineering Structures, 31(8), 1789-1799.
Giorgi, P. and Scotta, R. (2013). "Validation and improvement of N1 method for pushover analysis", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 55, 140-147.
Gupta, A. and Krawinkler, H. (1999). "Seismic demands for performance evaluation of steel moment resisting frame structures", Report No. 132, John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California.
Hernandez-Montes, E. Kwon, O.S. and Aschheim, M.A. (2004). "An energy-based formulation for first-and multiple-mode nonlinear static (pushover) analyses", Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 8(1), 69-88.
Izadinia, M. Rahgozar, M.A. and Mohammadrezaei, O. (2012). "Response modification factor for steel moment-resisting frames by different pushover analysis methods", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 79, 83-90.
Jiang, Y., Li, G. and Yang, D. (2010). "A modified approach of energy balance concept based multimode pushover analysis to estimate seismic demands for buildings", Engineering Structures, 32(5), 1272-1283.
Khoshnoudian,  F. and Kashani, M.M.B. (2012). "Assessment of modified consecutive modal pushover analysis for estimating the seismic demands of tall buildings with dual system considering steel concentrically braced frames”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 72, 155-167. 
Krawinkler, H. (2000). "State of the art report on systems performance of steel moment frames subject to earthquake ground shaking",  Prepared for the SAC Joint Venture, Published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, FEMA-355 C, Washington, DC.
Krawinkler, H. and Seneviratna, G. (1998). "Pros and cons of a pushover analysis of seismic performance evaluation", Engineering Structures, 20(4), 452-464.
Kunnath,  S. K. and Kalkan, E. (2004). "Evaluation of seismic deformation demands using nonlinear procedures in multistory steel and concrete moment frames", ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, 41(1), 159-181.
Lefort, T. (2000). "Advanced pushover analysis of RC multi-storey buildings", M.Sc. Dissertation, Imperial College, London. United Kingdom.
López-Menjivar, M. (2004). "Verification of a displacement-based Adaptive Pushover method for assessment of 2-D Reinforced Concrete Buildings", Ph.D. Thesis, European School for Advances Studies in Reduction of Seismic Risk (ROSE School), University of Pavia, Italy.
Malekzadeh, H. (2013). "Response modification factor of coupled steel shear walls", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 46(1), 15-26.
Manoukas, G., Athanatopoulou, A. and Avramidis, I. (2012). "Multimode pushover analysis for asymmetric buildings under biaxial seismic excitation based on a new concept of the equivalent single degree of freedom system", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 38, 88-96.
Mazza, F. (2014). "Modelling and nonlinear static analysis of reinforced concrete framed buildings irregular in plan", Engineering Structures, 80, 98-108.
Mazzoni, S., McKenna, F., Scott, M.H. and Fenves, G.L. (2005). OpenSees command language manual, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Center.
Menegotto, M. and Pinto, E. (1973). "Method of analysis for cyclically loaded reinforced concrete plane frames including changes in geometry and non-elastic behavior of elements under combined normal force and bending", IABSE Symposium on the Resistance and Ultimate Deformability of Structures Acted on by Well-Defined Repeated Loads, Lisbon.
Nguyen, A.H., Chintanapakdee, C. and Hayashikawa, T. (2010). "Assessment of current nonlinear static procedures for seismic evaluation of BRBF buildings", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 66(8), 1118-1127.
NIST GCR 10-917-9 (2010). Applicability of nonlinear multiple-degree-of-freedom modeling for design, Prepared by the NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture for the National Institute of Standards and Technology , Gaithersburg, Maryland
Panyakapo, P. (2014). "Cyclic pushover analysis procedure to estimate seismic demands for buildings", Engineering Structures, 66, 10-23. 
Poursha, M., Khoshnoudian and, F. Moghadam, A. (2011). "A consecutive modal pushover procedure for nonlinear static analysis of one-way unsymmetric-plan tall building structures", Engineering Structures, 33(9), 2417-2434.
Poursha, M., Khoshnoudian, F. and Moghadam, A. (2009). "A consecutive modal pushover procedure for estimating the seismic demands of tall buildings", Engineering Structures, 31(2), 591-599.
Poursha, M., Khoshnoudian, F. and Moghadam, A. (2014). "The extended consecutive modal pushover procedure for estimating the seismic demands of two-way unsymmetric-plan tall buildings under influence of two horizontal components of ground motions", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 63, 162-173.
  Reitherman, R. (1997). "Book review: Seismic design methodologies for the next generation of codes", Fajfar, P. and Krawinkler, H. (eds.), Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 27(12), 1559-1562, Richmond, California.
Shakeri, K. and Ghorbani, S. (2015). "A pushover procedure for seismic assessment of buildings with bi-axial eccentricity under bi-directional seismic excitation", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 69, 1-15.
Shakeri, K. Shayanfar, M.A. and Kabeyasawa, T. (2010). "A story shear-based adaptive pushover procedure for estimating seismic demands of buildings", Engineering Structures, 32(1), 174-183.
Shakeri, K., Tarbali, K. and Mohebbi, M. (2012). "An adaptive modal pushover procedure for asymmetric-plan buildings", Engineering Structures, 36, 160-172. 
Shayanfar, M.A., Zare Bidoki, R., Farhadi, B. and.Shahabi, S.M.A. (2012). "Assessment of various modeling parameters and their influence on seismic behavior of braced steel frame structures", 15th  World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal.
Somerville P.G. and Venture S.A.C.J. (1997). "Development of ground motion time histories for phase 2 of the FEMA/SAC steel project", SAC Joint Venture.
Tarbali, K. and Shakeri, K. (2014). "Story shear and torsional moment-based pushover procedure for asymmetric-plan buildings using an adaptive capacity spectrum method", Engineering Structures, 79, 32-44. 
Tarta, G. and Pintea, A. (2012). "Seismic evaluation of multi-storey moment-resisting steel frames with stiffness irregularities using standard and advanced pushover methods", Procedia Engineering, 40, 445-450.
Uriz, P and Stephen, A .M. (2008). "Toward earthquake-resistant design of concentrically braced steel-frame structures", Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Berkeley, California .