Permeability Characteristics of Compacted and Stabilized Clay with Cement, Peat Ash and Silica Sand

Document Type: Research Papers

Authors

1 Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, IKRAM-UNITEN Road, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

2 College of Graduate Studies, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, IKRAM-UNITEN Road, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

Abstract

The present paper investigates the influence of stabilization with cement, peat ash, and silica sand on permeability coefficient (kv) of compacted clay, using a novel approach to stabilize the clay with peat ash as a supplementary material of cement in the compacted and stabilized soil. In order to assess the mentioned influence, test specimens of both untreated and stabilized soil have been tested in the laboratory so that their permeability could be evaluated. Falling head and one dimensional consolidation tests of laboratory permeability were performed on the clay specimens and the chemical compositions of the materials as well as microstructure of the stabilized soil with 18% cement, 2% peat ash, and 5% silica sand were investigated, using X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy respectively. Results show that for soil stabilization with up to 8% cement content (of the dry weight of the soil), the average value of coefficient of permeability (kv) is very close to that of untreated soil, whereas the kv value decreases drastically for 18% cement under identical void ratio conditions. It is further revealed that addition of 18% cement, 2% peat ash, and 5% silica sand had decreased the coefficient of permeability by almost 2.2 folds after 24 h, while about 1.7 folds increase was observed in coefficient of permeability once 13.5% of cement, 1.5% of peat ash, and 20% of silica sand were added. The partial replacement of cement with the 2% peat ash can reduce the consumption of cement for soil stabilization.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Abdi, M.R. and Parsa Pajouh, A. (2009). "Use of bentonite and lime for decreasing the permeability of liner and cover in landfills", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 43(1), 61-70.

ASTM D5084-03. (2003), Standard test methods for measurement of hydraulic conductivity of saturated porous materials, American Society of Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D2435. (2003), ASTM D2435, Standard test method for one-dimensional consolidation properties of soils using incremental loading, American Society of Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Philadelphia, 04.08, pp. 1-10.

ASTM C204-11. (2014),Standard test methods for fineness of hydraulic cement by air permeability apparatus,American Society of Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D698. (2012), Standard test methods for laboratory compaction characteristics of soil using standard effort, American Society of Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D2974-14. (2014), Standard test methods for moisture, ash, and organic matter of peat and other organic soils, American Society of Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

Bujang, B.K.H., Kazemian, S., Prasad, A. and Barghchi, M. (2011). "State of an art review of peat: General perspective", International Journal of the Physical Sciences, 6(8), 1988-1996.

Bazargan, J. and Shoaei, S.M. (2010). "Analysis of non-darcy flow in rock fill materials using gradually varied flow method", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 44(2), 131-139.

Bahar, R., Benazzoug, M. and Kenai, S. (2004). "Performance of compacted cement-stabilised soil", Cement and Concrete Composites, 26(7), 811-820.

Das, B.M. (1989). Soil mechanic laboratory manual, 6th Edition, Hardcover, Oxford.

Ghasemzadeh, H. and Abounouri, A.A. (2013). "The effect of dynamic permeability on velocity and intrinsic attenuation of compressional waves in sand", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 46(2), 221-231.

Goodary, R., Lecomte-Nana, G.L., Petit, C. and  Smith., D.S. (2012). "Investigation of the strength development in cement-stabilised soils of volcanic origin", Construction and Building Materials, 28(1), 592-598.

Hossain, K.M.A. and Mol, L. (2011). "Some engineering properties of stabilized clayey soils incorporating natural pozzolans and industrial wastes", Construction and Building Materials, 25(8), 3495-3501.

Horpibulusk, S., Rachan, R., Chinkulkijniwat, A., Raksachon, Y. and Suddeepong, A. (2010). "Analysis of strength development in cement-stabilized silty clay from micro structural considerations", Construction and Building Materials, 24(10), 2011-2021.

Horpibulsuk, S., Phojan, W., Suddeepong, A., Chinkulkijniwat, A. and Liu Martin, D. (2012). "Strength development in blended cement admixed saline clay", Applied Clay Science, 55, 44-52.

Horpibulsuk, S., Rachan, R. and Suddeepong, A. (2011). "Compressibility and permeability of Bangkok clay compared with kaolinite and bentonite", Applied Clay Science, 52(1-2), 150-159.

Kowalski, T.E., Dale, W. and Starry, Jr. (2007). "Modern soil stabilization techniques", Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, October, pp. 14-17.

Mahasenan, N., Steve, S., Kenneth, H. and Kaya, Y. (2003). "The cement industry and global climate change: Current and potential future cement industry CO2 emissions", Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, 6th International Conference, Oxford, Pergamon, pp. 995-1000.

Mousavi, S.E. and Wong, L.S. (2015). "Performance of compacted and stabilized clay with cement, peat ash and silica sand", Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, 9(1), 20-32.

Wong, L.S., Hashim, R. and Ali, F. (2013). "Utilization of sodium bentonite to maximize the filler and pozzolanic effects of stabilized peat", Engineering Geology, 152(1), 56-66.

Yilmaz, Y. and Ozaydin, V. (2013). "Compaction and shear strength characteristics of colemanite ore waste modified active belite cement stabilized high plasticity soils", Engineering Geology,155, 45-53.