Predicting Deficient Condition Performance of Water Distribution Networks

Document Type: Research Papers

Authors

1 B.E. (Civil), M. Tech. (Env.), Ph.D.

2 B.E. (Civil), M. Tech (Env.)

Abstract

A water distribution network is subjected to various abnormal conditions such as pipe breaks, pump failures, excessive demands etc. in the design period. Under such conditions, the network may not be able to meet required demands at desired pressures, and becomes deficient. Traditional network analysis assumes nodal demands to be satisfied and available nodal pressures are calculated. However, assumption that demands are satisfied at all nodes is not true under deficient conditions. Therefore, under deficient conditions nodal demands and pressures are considered simultaneously through head-flow relationships to calculate available nodal flows. This type of analysis that determines available flows is termed as node flow analysis or pressure-driven or dependent wherein, outflows are considered as function of available pressure. Various node head-flow relationships (NHFR) have been suggested by researchers to correlate available flow and available pressure based on required flow and required pressure. Methods using these NHFRs have been classified herein as direct and indirect approaches. Applications of these approaches have been shown with two illustrative examples and results are compared.

Keywords


Ang, W.K. and Jowitt, P.W. (2006). “Solution for water distribution systems under pressure-deficient conditions”, J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 132(3), 175-182.

Bhave, P.R. (1981). "Node flow analysis of water distribution systems", J. Transportation Engineering, ASCE, 107(4), 457-467.

Bhave,  P.R. (1985). "Rapid convergence in hardy cross method of network analysis", J. Indian Water Works Association, 16(1), 1-5.

Bhave, P.R. (1991). Analysis of flow in water distribution networks, Technomic Pub. Co., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA

Bhave, P.R. (2003). Optimal design of water distribution networks, Alpha Science International Ltd., Pangbourne, England.

Bhave, P.R. and Gupta, R. (2006). Analysis of Water Distribution Networks, Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India.

Chandapillai, J. (1991). “Realistic simulation of water distribution systems”, J. Transportation Engineering, ASCE, 117(2), 258-263.

Fujiwara, O. and Ganesharajah, T. (1993). "Reliability assessment of water supply systems with storage and distribution networks", J. Water Resources Research, 29(8), 2917-2924.

Fujiwara, O. and Li, J. (1988). "Reliability analysis of water distribution networks in consideration of equity, redistribution, and pressure dependent demand", J. Water Resources Research, 34(7), 1843-1850.

Germanopoulos, G. (1985). “A technical note on the inclusion of pressure dependent demand and leakage terms in water supply network models”, Civil Engineering Systems, 2(3), 171-179.

GiustolisiO. and Laucelli D. (2011). “Water distribution network pressure-driven analysis using the enhanced global gradient algorithm (EGGA)”, J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 137(6), 498-510.

Gupta, R. and Bhave, P.R. (1994). "Reliability analysis of water distribution systems", J. Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 120(2), 447-460.

Gupta, R. and Bhave, P.R. (1996a). "Reliability-based design of water distribution systems", J.  Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 122(1), 51-54.

Gupta, R. and Bhave, P.R. (1996b). “Comparison of methods for predicting deficient network performance", J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 122(3), 214-217.

Gupta, R. and Bhave, P. R. (2004). “Comments on ‘redundancy model for water distribution systems’ by P. Kalungi and T.T. Tanyimboh”, Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 86(3), 331-333.

Gupta, R. and Bhave, P.R. (2004). “Redundancy-based strengthening and expansion of water distribution networks”, Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Hydroinformatics, Singapore.

Gupta, R., Awale, A., Markam, A. and Bhave, P.R. (2005). “Node flow analysis of water distribution networks using gradient method”, Proceedings of National Conference on Advances in Water Engineering for Sustainable Development, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 207-214.

Jinesh Babu, K.S. and Mohan S. (2012). “Extended period simulation for pressure-deficient water distribution network”, J. Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 26(4), 498-505.

Kalungi, P. and Tanyimboh T.T. (2003). “Redundancy model for water distribution systems”, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 82(3), 275-286.

Ozger, S.S. and Mays, L.W. (2003). “A semi-pressure-driven approach to reliability assessment of water distribution networks”, Proceedings of 30th IAHR World Congress, Thessaloniki, 345-352.

Rossman, L.A. (2000). EPANET user’s manual, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati.

Tabesh, M., Tanyimboh, T.T. and Burrows, R. (2002). “Head-driven simulation of water supply networks”, International J. Engineering, 15(1), 11-22.

Tahar, B., Tanyimboh, T.T. and Templeman, A.B. (2002). “Pressure-dependent modelling of water distribution systems”, Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Decision Making in Urban and Civil Engineering, London.

Todini, E. (2003). “A more realistic approach to the extended period simulation of water distribution networks”, Advances in Water Supply Management, Maksimovic, C., Butler, D. and Memon, F.A. (Eds.), Swets and Zeitlinger Publishers, Balkema, Lisse, The Netherlands, 173-184.

Wagner, J.M., Shamir, U. and Marks, D.H. (1988). “Water distribution reliability: simulation method”, J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 114(3), 276-294.

Wu, Z.Y., Wang, R.H., Walski, T.M., Yang, S.Y., Bowdler, D. and Baggett, C.C. (2009). “Extended global-gradient algorithm for pressure-dependent water distribution analysis”, J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 135(1), 13-22.