Optimization of Dynamic Compaction Procedure for Sandy Soils

Document Type : Research Papers


1 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.

2 M.Sc., Department of Civil Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.


Dynamic Compaction (DC) is employed as a simple and economical method to improve weak soils in the last few decades. DC is usually applied for granular soils by falling a heavyweight (up to 40 tons) from a height (up to 40 m) at regularly spaced intervals. Significant issues in DC are the weight and height of the tamper, compaction pattern and the distance between tamping locations. Incorporated innovation in this paper is to introduce an analytical approach to optimize the compaction pattern and DC variables regarding regular constraints. The required energy for compaction is evaluated for square and diamond patterns. DC optimization is a non-linear and non-convex problem due to nonlinear equations in soil compaction behavior. Thus, a metaheuristic approach (Genetic Algorithm) is employed to find global optimum. The optimum answer presents the minimum compaction energy in each pattern. Results indicated that the maximum allowed values of tamper mass and the number of tamper drops were required to minimize compaction energy. The ratio of compaction energy at diamond pattern to square one was also found to be about 0.75 to 0.90 for the same compaction conditions.


Main Subjects

Adam, D., Brandl, H., Kopf, F. and Paulmichl, I. (2007). "Heavy tamping integrated dynamic compaction control", Ground Improvement, 11(4), 237-243, https://doi.org/10.1680/grim.2007.11.4.237.
An, Z., Liu, T., Zhang, Z., Zhang, Q., Huangfu, Z., and Li, Q. (2020). "Dynamic optimization of compaction process for rockfill materials", Automation in Construction, 110(2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2019.103038.
Anand, A. and Sarkar, R. (2021). "A comprehensive study on bearing behavior of cement-fly ash composites through experimental and probabilistic investigations", Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, 6(1), 39, https://doi.org/10.1007/s41062-020-00404-w.
Arslan, H., Baykal, G. and Ertas, O. (2009). "Discussion: Influence of tamper weight shape on dynamic compaction", Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Ground Improvement, 162(3), 153-154, https://doi.org/10.1680/grim.2009.162.3.153.
Bağrıaçık, B., Yıldırım, Z.B., Güner, E.D. and Beycioğlu, A. (2020). "Assessment of pipe powder in soil improvement applications: An optimization by response surface methodology", Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 13(19), 1-11, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-05962-y.
Biabani, F., Razzazi, A., Shojaee, S. and Hamzehei-Javaran, S. (2022). "Design and application of ahybrid meta-heuristic optimization algorithm based on the combination of PSO, GSA, GWO and Cellular Automation", Iran University of Science & Technology, 12(3), 279-312, http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/article-1-520-en.html.
Chen, L., Qiao, L. and Li, Q. (2019). "Study on dynamic compaction characteristics of gravelly soils with crushing effect", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 120(January 2017), 158-169, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2019.01.034.
Chow, Y.K., Yong, D.M., Yong, K.Y. and Lee, S.L. (1992). "Dynamic compaction analysis", Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 118(8), 1141-1157, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1992)118:8(1141).
Du, J., Wu, S., Hou, S. and Wei, Y. (2019). "Deformation analysis of granular soils under dynamic compaction based on stochastic medium theory", Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2019(1), 6076013, https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6076013.
Fazli, H. (2022). "An efficient method for optimum performance-based seismic design of fused building structures", Iran University of Science & Technology, 12(4), 501-516, http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/article-1-531-en.html.
Feng, S.J., Du, F.L., Chen, H.X. and Mao, J.Z. (2017). "Centrifuge modeling of preloading consolidation and dynamic compaction in treating dredged soil", Engineering Geology, 226, 161-171, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2017.06.005.
Feng, S J., Du, F.L., Shi, Z.M., Shui, W.H. and Tan, K. (2015). "Field study on the reinforcement of collapsible loess using dynamic compaction", Engineering Geology, 185, 105-115, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2014.12.006.
Feng, S.J., Shui, W.H., Gao, L.Y., He, L.J. and Tan, K. (2010). "Field studies of the effectiveness of dynamic compaction in coastal reclamation areas", Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 69(1), 129-136, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-009-0242-x.
Feng, S.J., Tan, K., Shui, W.H. and Zhang, Y. (2013). "Densification of desert sands by high energy dynamic compaction", Engineering Geology, 157, 48-54, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2013.01.017.
Feng, T.W., Chen, K.H., Su, Y.T. and Shi, Y.C. (2000). "Laboratory investigation of effiency of conical-based pounders for dynamic compaction", Geotechnique, 50(6), 667-674, https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.2000.50.6.667.
Ghanbari, M. and Bayat, M. (2022). "Effectiveness of reusing steel slag powder and polypropylene fiber on the enhanced mechanical characteristics of cement-stabilized sand", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 55(2), 47-63, https://doi.org/10.22059/CEIJ.2021.319310.1742.
Ghassemi, A., Pak, A. and Shahir, H. (2010). "Numerical study of the coupled hydro-mechanical effects in dynamic compaction of saturated granular soils", Computers and Geotechnics, 37(1-2), 10-24, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2009.06.009.
Ghassemi, A. and Shahebrahimi, S.S. (2020). "Discrete element modeling of dynamic compaction with different tamping condition", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 53(1), 173-188, https://doi.org/10.22059/ceij.2020.282153.1587.
Goldberg, D.E. (1989). Genetic algorithms in search, optimization, and machine learning, Addison-Wesley Professional, United States.
Gu, Q. and Lee, F.H. (2002). "Ground response to dynamic compaction of dry sand", Geotechnique, 52(7), 481-493, https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.2002.52.7.481.
Haghbin, M. and Ghazavi, M. (2016). "Seismic bearing capacity of strip footings on pile-stabilized slopes", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 49(1), 111-126, https://doi.org/10.7508/ceij.2016.01.008.
Holland, J.H. (1992). Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems, MIT Press, United States.
Hosseini, P., Kaveh, A. and Hoseini Vaez, S.R. (2022). "Robust design optimization of space truss structures", Iran University of Science & Technology, 12(4), 595-608, http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/article-1-536-en.html.
Hu, R.L., Yeung, M.R., Lee, C.F. and and Wang, S.J. (2001). "Mechanical behavior and microstructural variation of loess under dynamic compaction", Engineering Geology, 59(3-4), 203-217, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-7952(00)00074-0.
Kalantary, F. and Kahani, M. (2019). "Optimization of the biological soil improvement procedure", International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 16(8), 4231-4240, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-018-1821-9.
Kaveh, A. and  Zaerreza, A. (2022). "Optimum design of the braced dome with frequency constraint using the improved shuffled based Jaya Algorithm", Iran University of Science & Technology, 12(4), 609-625, http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/article-1-537-en.html.
Li, W., Gu, Q., Su, L. and Yang, B. (2011). "Finite element analysis of dynamic compaction in soft foundation", Procedia Engineering, 12, 224-228, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2011.05.035.
Mehdipour, S. and Hamidi, A. (2017). "Impact of tamper shape on the efficiency and vibrations induced during dynamic compaction of dry sands by 3D Finite Element modeling", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 50(1), 151-163, https://doi.org/10.7508/ceij.2017.01.009.
Ménard, L. and  Broise, Y. (1975). "Theoretical and practical aspect of dynamic consolidation", Geotechnique, 25(1), 3-18, https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1975.25.1.3.
Mostafa, K.F. and Liang, R.Y. (2011). "Numerical Modeling of Dynamic Compaction in Cohesive Soils", In: Geo-Frontiers 2011: Advances in Geotechnical Engineering, (pp. 738-747). https://doi.org/10.1061/41165(397)76.
Oshima, A. and Takada, N. (1999). "Evaluation compacted area of heavy damping by cone point resistance", In: Proceedings of the Centrifuge, Tokyo, 1641-1644.
Paranthaman, R. and Azam, S. (2022). "Effect of compaction on desiccation and consolidation behavior of clay tills", Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, 7(1), 1-8, https://doi.org/10.1007/s41062-021-00644-4.
Pasdarpour, M., Ghazavi, M., Teshnehlab, M. and Sadrnejad, S.A. (2009). "Optimal design of soil dynamic compaction using genetic algorithm and fuzzy system", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29(7), 1103-1112, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2008.09.003.
Raja, P.S.K. and  Thyagaraj, T. (2020). "Effect of compaction time delay on compaction and strength behavior of lime-treated expansive soil contacted with sulfate", Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, 5(1), 1-15, https://doi.org/10.1007/s41062-020-0268-2.
Sahlabadi, S.H., Bayat, M., Mousivand, M. and Saadat, M. (2021). "Freeze-thaw durability of cement-stabilized soil reinforced with polypropylene/basalt fibers", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 33(9), 04021232, https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0003905.
Salehi, M., Bayat, M., Saadat, M. and Nasri, M. (2021). "Experimental study on mechanical properties of cement-stabilized soil blended with crushed stone waste", KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 25(6), 1974-1984, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-021-0953-5.
Scott, B., Jaksa, M. and Mitchell, P. (2021). "Depth of influence of rolling dynamic compaction", Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Ground Improvement, 174(2), 85-94, https://doi.org/10.1680/jgrim.18.00117.
Shen, M., Martin, J.R., Ku, C.S. and Lu, Y.C. (2018). "A case study of the effect of dynamic compaction on liquefaction of reclaimed ground", Engineering Geology, 240, 48-61, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2018.04.003.
Silveira, I.A. and Rodrigues, R.A. (2020). "Collapsible behavior of lateritic soil due to compacting conditions", International Journal of Civil Engineering, 18(10), 1157-1166, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40999-020-00523-6.
Wang, H.L. and Yin, Z.Y. (2020). "High performance prediction of soil compaction parameters using multi expression programming", Engineering Geology, 276, 105758, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2020.105758.
Wang, S.Y., Chan, D.H., Lam, K.C. and Au, S.K.A. (2013). "A new laboratory apparatus for studying dynamic compaction grouting into granular soils", Soils and Foundations, 53(3), 462-468, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sandf.2013.04.007.
Wang, Y., Li, X.B. and Jiang, W.D. (2003). "Application of fuzzy model of multi-objective system to optimization of parameters of dynamic compaction", Rock and Soil Mechanics-Wuhan, 24(3), 410-412.
Wu, S., Wei, Y., Zhang, Y., Cai, H., Du, J., Wang, D., Yan, J. and Xiao, J. (2020). "Dynamic compaction of a thick soil-stone fill: Dynamic response and strengthening mechanisms", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 129(November 2019), 105944, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2019.105944.
Zhang, R., Sun, Y. and Song, E. (2019). "Simulation of dynamic compaction and analysis of its efficiency with the material point method", Computers and Geotechnics, 116(August), 103218, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2019.103218.
Zou, J.F., Luo, H. and Yang, X.L. (2008). "Effective depth of dynamic compaction in embankment built with soils and rocks", Journal of Central South University of Technology (English Edition), 15(SUPPL. 2), 34-37, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11771-008-0432-x.