Numerical Study of the Failure in Elbow Components of Buried Pipelines under Fault Movement

Document Type : Research Papers

Authors

School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Faults have large impact on the mechanical behavior of soil in pipeline’s construction. These pipelines have been embedded to supply vital resources such as water, oil, and gas for consumers. To prevent damage, it is highly recommended not to construct pipelines around active faults. However, it is generally inevitable to cross the fault due to wide extension of pipelines. In this paper, a numerical analysis and parametric study on an underground water pipeline in Tehran, Iran, under the fault-induced displacement is presented. It is important to note that the main focus of this study is on elbow components which are the most critical sections in pipeline systems. The effects of crossing angle, distance to elbow and various soil properties on the elbow response are investigated. It is aimed at finding a safe regulation to embed pipelines with the lowest level of risk expected in elbow components after fault movement. The results show that the elbow component does not suffer serious damage when the crossing angle is 90°, provided they are not located in the close vicinity of the fault rupture surface. However, when the crossing angle decreases to 60 and 45 degrees, these components are much more vulnerable.

Keywords


 

ABAQUS/Standard. (2016) User’s manual, Providence, RI, USA: Simulia.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). (2007). Boiler and pressure vessel code, NY, United States.

American Water Works Association. (2003). AWWA standard for polyethylene (PE) pressure pipe and tubing, 1/2 in. (13 mm) through 3 in. (76 mm), for water service, ANSI/AWWA C901-02, Denver, Colorado, United States.

Anastasopoulos, I., Gazetas, G., Bransby, M.F., Davies, M.C.R. and El Nahas, A. (2007). “Fault rupture propagation through sand: finite-element analysis and validation through centrifuge experiments”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 133(8), 943-958.

ASTM Committee D-18 on Soil and Rock. (2011). Standard practice for classification of soils for engineering purposes (Unified Soil Classification System), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.

Bildik, S. and Laman, M. (2015). “Experimental investigation of the effects of pipe location on the bearing capacity”, Geomechanics and Engineering, 8(2), 221-235.

Canadian Standard Association. (2007). Oil and gas pipeline system, Z662–07, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Castiglia, M., Santucci de Magistris, F. and Napolitano, A. (2018). “Stability of pipelines in liquefied soils: Overview of computational methods”, Geomechanics and Engineering, 14(4), 355-366.

Dash, S.R. and Jain, S.K. (2007). Guidelines for Seismic Design of buried pipelines, IITK-GSDMA Codes, National Information Center of Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India.

Firoozabad, E.S., Jeon, B.G., Choi, H.S. and Kim, N.S. (2015). “Seismic fragility analysis of seismically isolated nuclear power plants piping system”, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 284, 264-279.

Firoozabad, E.S., Jeon, B.G., Choi, H.S. and Kim, N.S. (2016). “Failure criterion for steel pipe elbows under cyclic loading”, Engineering Failure Analysis, 66, 515-525.

Ha, D., Abdoun, T.H., O’Rourke, M.J., Symans, M.D., O’Rourke, T.D., Palmer, M.C. and Stewart, H.E. (2008). “Buried high-density polyethylene pipelines subjected to normal and strike-slip faulting, A centrifuge investigation”, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 45(12), 1733-1742.

Hassan, T., Rahman, M. and Bari, S. (2015). “Low-cycle fatigue and ratcheting responses of elbow piping components”, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 137(3), 031010-1 to 12.

Hessami, K. and Jamali, F. (2006). “Explanatory notes to the map of major active faults of Iran”, Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 8(1), 1-11.

Honegger, D.G. and Nyman, D.J. (2004). Guidelines for the seismic design and assessment of natural gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines, Pipeline Research Council International, Inc., Arlington, Va. Catalogue, (L51927).

Karamitros, D.K., Bouckovalas, G.D., Kouretzis, G.P. and Gkesouli, V. (2011). “An analytical method for strength verification of buried steel pipelines at normal fault crossings”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 31(11), 1452-1464.

Kim, S.W., Jeon, B.G., Hahm, D.G. and Kim, M.K. (2019). “Seismic fragility evaluation of the base-isolated nuclear power plant piping system using the failure criterion based on stress-strain”, Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 51(2), 561-572.

Kiran, A.R., Reddy, G.R. and Agrawal, M.K. (2018). “Experimental and numerical studies of inelastic behavior of thin walled elbow and tee joint under seismic load”, Thin-Walled Structures, 127, 700-709.

Kokavessis, N.K. and Anagnostidis, G. (2006). “Finite element modelling of buried pipelines subjected to seismic loads: Soil structure interaction using contact elements”, In: Proceedings of the ASME PVP conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Loukidis, D., Bouckovalas, G.D. and Papadimitriou, A.G. (2009). “Analysis of fault rupture propagation through uniform soil cover”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29(11-12), 1389-1404.

Motallebiyan, A., Bayat, M. and Nadi, B. (2020). “Analyzing the effects of soil-structure interactions on the static response of onshore wind turbine foundations using Finite Element method”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 53(1), 189-205.

Majrouhi Sardroud, J., Fakhimi, A., Mazroi, A., Ghoreishi, S.R., Azhar, S. (2021). “Building Information Modeling Deployment in Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industry: An Adoption Roadmap”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 54(2), 281-299.

Newmark, N.M. and Hall, W.J. (1975). “Pipeline design to resist large fault displacement”, In: Proceedings of US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp. 416-425.

Pouraria, H., Seo, J.K. and Paik, J.K. (2017). “Numerical study of erosion in critical components of subsea pipeline: Tees vs bends”, Ships and Offshore Structures, 12(2), 233-243.

Ritz, J.F., Nazari, H., Balescu, S., Lamothe, M., Salamati, R., Ghassemi, A., Shafei, A., Ghorashi, M. and Saidi, A. (2012). “Paleoearthquakes of the past 30,000 years along the North Tehran Fault (Iran)” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 117-B6. 

Sabermahany, H. and Bastami, M. (2019). “Refinement to the existing analytical methods of analysis of buried pipelines due to strike-slip faulting”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 52(2), 309-322.

Tsatsis, A., Loli, M. and Gazetas, G. (2019). “Pipeline in dense sand subjected to tectonic deformation from normal or reverse faulting”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 127, 105780.

Varelis, G.E., Karamanos, S.A. and Gresnigt, A.M. (2013). “Pipe elbows under strong cyclic loading”, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 135(1), 011207.

Varelis, G.E. and Karamanos, S.A. (2015). “Low-cycle fatigue of pressurized steel elbows under in-plane bending”, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 137(1), 011401-1 to 10.

Vazouras, P. and Karamanos, S.A. (2017). “Structural behavior of buried pipe bends and their effect on pipeline response in fault crossing areas”, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 15(11), 4999-5024.

Vazouras, P., Dakoulas, P. and Karamanos, S.A. (2015). “Pipe–soil interaction and pipeline performance under strike, Slip fault movements”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 72, 48-65.

 
ABAQUS/Standard. (2016) User’s manual, Providence, RI, USA: Simulia.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). (2007). Boiler and pressure vessel code, NY, United States.
American Water Works Association. (2003). AWWA standard for polyethylene (PE) pressure pipe and tubing, 1/2 in. (13 mm) through 3 in. (76 mm), for water service, ANSI/AWWA C901-02, Denver, Colorado, United States.
Anastasopoulos, I., Gazetas, G., Bransby, M.F., Davies, M.C.R. and El Nahas, A. (2007). “Fault rupture propagation through sand: finite-element analysis and validation through centrifuge experiments”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 133(8), 943-958.
ASTM Committee D-18 on Soil and Rock. (2011). Standard practice for classification of soils for engineering purposes (Unified Soil Classification System), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.
Bildik, S. and Laman, M. (2015). “Experimental investigation of the effects of pipe location on the bearing capacity”, Geomechanics and Engineering, 8(2), 221-235.
Canadian Standard Association. (2007). Oil and gas pipeline system, Z662–07, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Castiglia, M., Santucci de Magistris, F. and Napolitano, A. (2018). “Stability of pipelines in liquefied soils: Overview of computational methods”, Geomechanics and Engineering, 14(4), 355-366.
Dash, S.R. and Jain, S.K. (2007). Guidelines for Seismic Design of buried pipelines, IITK-GSDMA Codes, National Information Center of Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India.
Firoozabad, E.S., Jeon, B.G., Choi, H.S. and Kim, N.S. (2015). “Seismic fragility analysis of seismically isolated nuclear power plants piping system”, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 284, 264-279.
Firoozabad, E.S., Jeon, B.G., Choi, H.S. and Kim, N.S. (2016). “Failure criterion for steel pipe elbows under cyclic loading”, Engineering Failure Analysis, 66, 515-525.
Ha, D., Abdoun, T.H., O’Rourke, M.J., Symans, M.D., O’Rourke, T.D., Palmer, M.C. and Stewart, H.E. (2008). “Buried high-density polyethylene pipelines subjected to normal and strike-slip faulting, A centrifuge investigation”, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 45(12), 1733-1742.
Hassan, T., Rahman, M. and Bari, S. (2015). “Low-cycle fatigue and ratcheting responses of elbow piping components”, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 137(3), 031010-1 to 12.
Hessami, K. and Jamali, F. (2006). “Explanatory notes to the map of major active faults of Iran”, Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 8(1), 1-11.
Honegger, D.G. and Nyman, D.J. (2004). Guidelines for the seismic design and assessment of natural gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines, Pipeline Research Council International, Inc., Arlington, Va. Catalogue, (L51927).
Karamitros, D.K., Bouckovalas, G.D., Kouretzis, G.P. and Gkesouli, V. (2011). “An analytical method for strength verification of buried steel pipelines at normal fault crossings”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 31(11), 1452-1464.
Kim, S.W., Jeon, B.G., Hahm, D.G. and Kim, M.K. (2019). “Seismic fragility evaluation of the base-isolated nuclear power plant piping system using the failure criterion based on stress-strain”, Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 51(2), 561-572.
Kiran, A.R., Reddy, G.R. and Agrawal, M.K. (2018). “Experimental and numerical studies of inelastic behavior of thin walled elbow and tee joint under seismic load”, Thin-Walled Structures, 127, 700-709.
Kokavessis, N.K. and Anagnostidis, G. (2006). “Finite element modelling of buried pipelines subjected to seismic loads: Soil structure interaction using contact elements”, In: Proceedings of the ASME PVP conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Loukidis, D., Bouckovalas, G.D. and Papadimitriou, A.G. (2009). “Analysis of fault rupture propagation through uniform soil cover”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29(11-12), 1389-1404.
Motallebiyan, A., Bayat, M. and Nadi, B. (2020). “Analyzing the effects of soil-structure interactions on the static response of onshore wind turbine foundations using Finite Element method”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 53(1), 189-205.
Majrouhi Sardroud, J., Fakhimi, A., Mazroi, A., Ghoreishi, S.R., Azhar, S. (2021). “Building Information Modeling Deployment in Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industry: An Adoption Roadmap”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 54(2), 281-299.
Newmark, N.M. and Hall, W.J. (1975). “Pipeline design to resist large fault displacement”, In: Proceedings of US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp. 416-425.
Pouraria, H., Seo, J.K. and Paik, J.K. (2017). “Numerical study of erosion in critical components of subsea pipeline: Tees vs bends”, Ships and Offshore Structures, 12(2), 233-243.
Ritz, J.F., Nazari, H., Balescu, S., Lamothe, M., Salamati, R., Ghassemi, A., Shafei, A., Ghorashi, M. and Saidi, A. (2012). “Paleoearthquakes of the past 30,000 years along the North Tehran Fault (Iran)” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 117-B6. 
Sabermahany, H. and Bastami, M. (2019). “Refinement to the existing analytical methods of analysis of buried pipelines due to strike-slip faulting”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 52(2), 309-322.
Tsatsis, A., Loli, M. and Gazetas, G. (2019). “Pipeline in dense sand subjected to tectonic deformation from normal or reverse faulting”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 127, 105780.
Varelis, G.E., Karamanos, S.A. and Gresnigt, A.M. (2013). “Pipe elbows under strong cyclic loading”, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 135(1), 011207.
Varelis, G.E. and Karamanos, S.A. (2015). “Low-cycle fatigue of pressurized steel elbows under in-plane bending”, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 137(1), 011401-1 to 10.
Vazouras, P. and Karamanos, S.A. (2017). “Structural behavior of buried pipe bends and their effect on pipeline response in fault crossing areas”, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 15(11), 4999-5024.
Vazouras, P., Dakoulas, P. and Karamanos, S.A. (2015). “Pipe–soil interaction and pipeline performance under strike, Slip fault movements”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 72, 48-65.

Articles in Press, Corrected Proof
Available Online from 28 December 2021
  • Receive Date: 25 December 2020
  • Revise Date: 16 August 2021
  • Accept Date: 28 August 2021
  • First Publish Date: 28 December 2021