Numerical Investigation of Nailing Pattern Effect on Nailed Wall Performance

Document Type : Research Papers

Authors

1 Department of Civil Eng., Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kharazmi University

Abstract

In this paper, the performance of soil nailed walls with various nail patterns has been studied to find an optimum layout based on the deformation criterion. To this end, parametric analysis on soil nailed walls with various nailing patterns is performed. Nine patterns including one uniform and eight variable nails length are considered. For each pattern, parametric analysis on different parameters including wall height, surcharge, nails spacing is implemented to find an optimum pattern based on the deformation criterion. The simulation results indicate that using the variable layout with long nails at the top of the wall not only reduces the lateral deformation of soil nailed wall but also decreases the density of nails.

Keywords


Abbas, H., El Sherbiny, R. and Salam, A. (2020). “Numerical analysis of soil nail walls in hybrid retaining wall systems”, Geo-Congress 2020, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Ardakani, A., Bayat, M. and Javanmard, M. (2014). “Numerical modeling of soil nail walls considering Mohr Coulomb, hardening soil and hardening soil with small-strain stiffness effect models”, Geomechanics and Engineering, 6(4), 391-401.

Boscardin, M.D. and Cording, E.G. (1989). “Building response to excavation-induced settlement”, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 115(1), 1-21.

Chu, L.M. and Yin, J.H. (2005). “Comparison of interface shear strength of soil nails measured by both direct shear box tests and pull-out tests”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 131(9), 1097-1107.

Dupla, J.C. and Canou J. (1994). “Caractérisation mécanique du sable de Fontainebleau à partir d’essais triaxiaux de compression et d’extension”, Rapport Interne Clouterre II, CERMES–ENPC.

FHWA (1993). “Recommendations Clouterre 1991 (English translation): Soil nailing recommendations”, Report No. FHWA-SA-93-026, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

Fan, C.C., and Luo, J.H. (2008). “Numerical study on the optimum layout of soil-nailed slopes”, Computers and Geotechnics, 35(4), 585-599.

Gharedaghi, H. and Shahir, H. (2019). “Parametric assessment of lateral pressure on piles and laggings in an anchorage system”, Journal of Geoengineering, 14(1), 11-20.

Hajiazizi, M. and Mirzazadeh, Z. (2020). “Determination of creep-induced displacement of soil slopes based on LEM”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 53(2), 341-358.

Halabian, A.M., Sheikhbahaei, A.M. and Hashemolhosseini, S.H. (2012). “Three dimensional finite difference analysis of soil-nailed walls under static conditions”, Geomechanics and Geoengineering, 7(3), 183-196.

Hitha, S., Vijayshree, S., Animesh, S. and Ramkrishnan, R. (2019). “Regression analysis of soil nailing parameters using finite element and limit equilibrium methods”, Australian Geomechanics Journal, 54(3), 137-147.

Lazarte, C.A., Robinson, H., Gómez, J.E., Baxter, A., Cadden, A. and Berg, R. (2015). “Geotechnical engineering circular No. 7: Soil nail walls - Reference manual”, Report No. FHWA-NHI-14-007, National Highway Institute, US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington D.C.

Liu, J., Shang, K. and Wu, X. (2016). “Stability analysis and performance of soil-nailing retaining system of excavation during construction period”, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, ASCE, 30(1), C4014002.

Moniuddin, Md. K., Manjularani, P, and Govindaraju, L. (2016). “Seismic analysis of soil nail performance in deep excavation”, International Journal of Geo-Engineering, 7(1), 1-10.

Plumelle, C., Schlosser, F., Delage, P. and Knochenmus, G. (1990). “French national research project on soil nailing: Clouterre”, Proceedings of Conference of Design and Performance of Earth Retaining Structures, ASCE Geotechnical Special Publications No. 25, 660-675.

Rashidi, F., Shahir, H. and Arefizade, H. (2019). “Comparative study of anchored wall performance with two facing designs”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 52(1), 23-40.

Rashidi, F. and Shahir, H. (2019). “Numerical investigation of anchored soldier pile wall performance in the presence of surcharge”, International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 13(2), 162-171.

Rawat, S. and Gupta, A.K. (2016). “Analysis of a nailed soil slope using limit equilibrium and finite element methods”, International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering, 2(4), 1-23.

Schanz, T. and Vermeer, P.A. (1998). “On the stiffness of sand”, In: Pre-Failure Deformation Behaviour of Geomaterials, London, 383-387.

Schlosser, F., Unterreiner, P. and Plumelle, C. (1993). “Validation des méthodes de calcul de clouage par les expérimentations du projet national Clouterre”, Revue Française de Géotechnique, 64, 11-20.

Seo, H.J., Lee, I.M. and Lee, S.W. (2014). “Optimization of soil nailing design considering three failure modes”, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 18(2), 488-496.

Sharma, A. and Ramkrishnan, R. (2020). “Parametric optimization and multi-regression analysis for soil nailing using numerical approaches”, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 38, 3505-3523.

Tei, K., Taylor N.R. and Milligan G.W.E. (1998). “Centrifuge model tests of nailed soil slopes”, Soils and Foundations, Japanese Geotechnical Society, 38(2), 165-177.

Unterreiner, P., Benhamida, B. and Schlosser, F. (1997). “Finite element modeling of the construction of a full scale experimental soil-nailed wall”, French National Research Project Clouterre-Ground Improvement, 1(1), 1-8.

Yang, M.Z. and Drumm, E.C. (2000). “Numerical analysis of the load transfer and deformation in a soil nailed slope”, In: Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, pp. 102-115.

Zhang, M., Song, E. and Chen, Z. (1999). “Ground movement analysis of soil nailing construction by three-dimensional (3-D) finite element modeling (FEM)”, Computers and Geotechnics, 25(4), 191-204.

Abbas, H., El Sherbiny, R. and Salam, A. (2020). “Numerical analysis of soil nail walls in hybrid retaining wall systems”, Geo-Congress 2020, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Ardakani, A., Bayat, M. and Javanmard, M. (2014). “Numerical modeling of soil nail walls considering Mohr Coulomb, hardening soil and hardening soil with small-strain stiffness effect models”, Geomechanics and Engineering, 6(4), 391-401.
Boscardin, M.D. and Cording, E.G. (1989). “Building response to excavation-induced settlement”, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 115(1), 1-21.
Chu, L.M. and Yin, J.H. (2005). “Comparison of interface shear strength of soil nails measured by both direct shear box tests and pull-out tests”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 131(9), 1097-1107.
Dupla, J.C. and Canou J. (1994). “Caractérisation mécanique du sable de Fontainebleau à partir d’essais triaxiaux de compression et d’extension”, Rapport Interne Clouterre II, CERMES–ENPC.
FHWA (1993). “Recommendations Clouterre 1991 (English translation): Soil nailing recommendations”, Report No. FHWA-SA-93-026, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.
Fan, C.C., and Luo, J.H. (2008). “Numerical study on the optimum layout of soil-nailed slopes”, Computers and Geotechnics, 35(4), 585-599.
Gharedaghi, H. and Shahir, H. (2019). “Parametric assessment of lateral pressure on piles and laggings in an anchorage system”, Journal of Geoengineering, 14(1), 11-20.
Hajiazizi, M. and Mirzazadeh, Z. (2020). “Determination of creep-induced displacement of soil slopes based on LEM”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 53(2), 341-358.
Halabian, A.M., Sheikhbahaei, A.M. and Hashemolhosseini, S.H. (2012). “Three dimensional finite difference analysis of soil-nailed walls under static conditions”, Geomechanics and Geoengineering, 7(3), 183-196.
Hitha, S., Vijayshree, S., Animesh, S. and Ramkrishnan, R. (2019). “Regression analysis of soil nailing parameters using finite element and limit equilibrium methods”, Australian Geomechanics Journal, 54(3), 137-147.
Lazarte, C.A., Robinson, H., Gómez, J.E., Baxter, A., Cadden, A. and Berg, R. (2015). “Geotechnical engineering circular No. 7: Soil nail walls - Reference manual”, Report No. FHWA-NHI-14-007, National Highway Institute, US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington D.C.
Liu, J., Shang, K. and Wu, X. (2016). “Stability analysis and performance of soil-nailing retaining system of excavation during construction period”, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, ASCE, 30(1), C4014002.
Moniuddin, Md. K., Manjularani, P, and Govindaraju, L. (2016). “Seismic analysis of soil nail performance in deep excavation”, International Journal of Geo-Engineering, 7(1), 1-10.
Plumelle, C., Schlosser, F., Delage, P. and Knochenmus, G. (1990). “French national research project on soil nailing: Clouterre”, Proceedings of Conference of Design and Performance of Earth Retaining Structures, ASCE Geotechnical Special Publications No. 25, 660-675.
Rashidi, F., Shahir, H. and Arefizade, H. (2019). “Comparative study of anchored wall performance with two facing designs”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 52(1), 23-40.
Rashidi, F. and Shahir, H. (2019). “Numerical investigation of anchored soldier pile wall performance in the presence of surcharge”, International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 13(2), 162-171.
Rawat, S. and Gupta, A.K. (2016). “Analysis of a nailed soil slope using limit equilibrium and finite element methods”, International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering, 2(4), 1-23.
Schanz, T. and Vermeer, P.A. (1998). “On the stiffness of sand”, In: Pre-Failure Deformation Behaviour of Geomaterials, London, 383-387.
Schlosser, F., Unterreiner, P. and Plumelle, C. (1993). “Validation des méthodes de calcul de clouage par les expérimentations du projet national Clouterre”, Revue Française de Géotechnique, 64, 11-20.
Seo, H.J., Lee, I.M. and Lee, S.W. (2014). “Optimization of soil nailing design considering three failure modes”, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 18(2), 488-496.
Sharma, A. and Ramkrishnan, R. (2020). “Parametric optimization and multi-regression analysis for soil nailing using numerical approaches”, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 38, 3505-3523.
Tei, K., Taylor N.R. and Milligan G.W.E. (1998). “Centrifuge model tests of nailed soil slopes”, Soils and Foundations, Japanese Geotechnical Society, 38(2), 165-177.
Unterreiner, P., Benhamida, B. and Schlosser, F. (1997). “Finite element modeling of the construction of a full scale experimental soil-nailed wall”, French National Research Project Clouterre-Ground Improvement, 1(1), 1-8.
Yang, M.Z. and Drumm, E.C. (2000). “Numerical analysis of the load transfer and deformation in a soil nailed slope”, In: Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, pp. 102-115.
Zhang, M., Song, E. and Chen, Z. (1999). “Ground movement analysis of soil nailing construction by three-dimensional (3-D) finite element modeling (FEM)”, Computers and Geotechnics, 25(4), 191-204.
Volume 54, Issue 2
December 2021
Pages 331-350
  • Receive Date: 29 February 2020
  • Revise Date: 10 September 2020
  • Accept Date: 14 December 2020
  • First Publish Date: 12 July 2021