Investigating the Reliability of Negative Skin Friction on Composite Piles

Document Type : Research Papers


1 Imam Khomeini International University

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran.

3 Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


In this study, the impact of Negative Skin Friction (NSF) on composite piles concerning different variables such as different pile sections, the amount of concrete and steel consumption, and various interaction coefficients of the pile-soil system in both solid and hollow conditions are evaluated using numerical methods. Besides, the effect of the variables considered on the negative skin friction and pile’s settlement is investigated. Numerical analyses were performed using ABAQUS and MATLAB. The results showed that the amount of frictional stress on the pile decreases if the hollow sections are used. However, the hallow pile experiences more settlements than other piles’ models. On the other hand, if the amount of consumed steel in a pile is reduced, the amount of negative skin friction induced in a pile decreases, while the pile settlement increases. After examining the Finite Element of concrete piles in fine-grained soils, the safety surface of the suggested numerical relationship was considered in the phenomenon of negative friction on the pile. For this purpose, considering the uncertainty parameters such as mean, variance and probability function for overcharge, soil parameters, dimensions and different types of the single pile, the amount of settlement, the stress created on the pile, the position of neutral plane on the pile and drag load were calculated using the proposed relationship. Finally, the safety surface of the proposed relationships or comparisons of a Finite Element results in a close approximation to the real models was computed.


Akbari, J. and Jafari, F. (2018). “Calibration of Load and Resistance Factors for Reinforced Concrete”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 51(1), 217-227.
Azizkandi, A., Taherkhani, R. and Taji, A. (2019). “Experimental study of a square foundation with connected and non-connected piled raft foundation under eccentrically loaded”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 52(1), 185-203.
Badarloo, B. and Jafari, F. (2019). “Numerical study on the effect of concrete grade on the CFT circular column’s behavior under axial load”, Civil Engineering Journal, 5(11), 2359-2376.
Cao, W., Chen, Y. and Wolfe, W.E. (2014). “New load transfer hyperbolic model for pile-soil interface and negative skin friction on single piles embedded in soft soils”, International Journal of Geomechanics, 14(1), 92-100.
Carswell, W., Arwade, S.R., DeGroot, D.J. and Lackner, M.A. (2015). “Soil-structure reliability of shore wind turbine monopile foundations”, Wind Energy Journal, 18(3), 483-498.
Comodromos, E.M. and Bareka, S.V. (2005). “Evaluation of negative skin friction effects in pile foundations using 3D nonlinear analysis”, Computers and Geotechnics, 32(3), 210-221.
Ditlevsen, O. and Madsen, H.O. (2007). Structural reliability method, Wiley, New York.
El-Mossallamy, Y.M., Hefny, A.M., Demerdash, M.A. and Morsy, M.S. (2013). “Numerical analysis of negative skin friction on piles in soft clay”, Housing and Building National Research Center HBRC Journal, 9(1), 68-76.
Eslami, A., Lotfi, S., Infante, J.A., Moshfeghi, S. and Eslami, M.M. (2020). “Pile shaft capacity from cone penetration test records considering scale effects”, International Journal of Geomechanics, 20(7), 04020073.
Fardis, M.N. and Veneziano, D. (1982). “Probabilistic analysis of deposit liquefaction”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 108(3), 395-417.
Gang-qiang, Z.K., Han-long, L., Xuan-ming, D. and Liang. R. (2014). “A simplified approach for negative skin friction calculation of special-shaped pile considering pile-soil interaction under surcharge”, Journal of Central South University, 21(9), 3648-3655.
Golafzani, S.H., Chenari, R.J. and Eslami, A. (2019). “Reliability based assessment of axial pile bearing capacity: static analysis, SPT and CPT-based methods”, Journal of Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards, 1-15.
Haghbin, M. and Ghazavi, M. (2016). “Seismic bearing capacity of strip footings on pile-stabilized slopes”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 49(1), 111-126.
Hajitaheriha. M.M. and Hassanlourad. M. (2015). “Numerical modeling of the negative skin friction on single vertical and batter pile”, Acta Geotechnica Slovenica, 12(2), 47-55.
Huang, T., Zheng, J. and Gong, W. (2015). “The group effect on negative skin friction on piles”, Procedia Engineering, 116, 802-808.
Jaky, J. (1948). “Pressure in silos”, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Rotterdam, Netherland, 1, 103-107.
Jha, S. K. and Kiichi, S. (2009). “Reliability analysis of soil liquefaction based on standard penetration test”, Computers and Geotechnics, 36(4), 589-596.
Jinyuan, L., Hongmei, G. and Hanlong, L. (2012). “Finite Element analyses of negative skin friction on a single pile”, Acta Geotechnica, 7(3), 239-252.
Juang, C.H., Jianye, C. and Zhe, L. (2012). “Assessing SPT-based probabilistic models for liquefaction potential evaluation: A 10-year update”, Journal of Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards, 7(3), 137-150.
Lee, C.J. (2001). “The influence of negative skin friction on piles and in pile groups”, Ph.D. Thesis, Cambridge University.
Lee, C.J., Bolton, M.D. and Al-Tabbaa. A. (2002). “Numerical modeling of group effects on the distribution of drag loads in pile foundations”, Geotechnique, 52 (5), 325-335.
Local Authority Building Control Technical Information Note 3. (2010). Driven and in-situ piled foundations, Cambridge City Council, East Cambridgeshire District Council, Fenland District Council, Huntingdonshire District Council, Peterborough City Council, South Cambridgeshire District Council, 1.
The MathWorks, Inc. (1998). Matlab user guide, Natick, MA.
Melchers, R.E. and Beck. A.T. (2018). Structural reliability analysis and prediction, John Wiley & Sons.
Moshfeghi, S. and Eslami, A. (2018). “Reliability-based assessment of drilled displacement piles bearing capacity using CPT records”, Marine Georesources and Geotechnology Journal, 37(1), 67-80.
Pastor, J.L., Marcos, O.J., Miguel, A. and Climent, I.S. (2018). “Skin friction coefficient change on cement grouts for micropiles due to sulfate attack”, Construction and Building Materials, 163, 80-86.
Phoon, K.K., and Ching, J. (Eds.). (2018). Risk and reliability in geotechnical engineering, CRC Press.
Xing, H. and Liu, L. (2018). “Field tests on influencing factors of negative skin friction for pile foundations in collapsible loess regions”, International Journal of Civil Engineering, 16(10), 1413-1422.