Blast Mitigation Analysis of Semi-Buried Structure

Document Type : Research Papers


1 Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), Nagpur

2 IIT Delhi

3 Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi


Semi-buried structures are most commonly used at first line of defense along the border between two countries. This demands investigation of their dynamic behaviour under blast loading. Herein, a semi-buried structure with foam sandwiched walls and buttresses to reduce the effect of blast is analysed. The effect of provision of different configurations of buttresses and foam core between two layers of structural wall subjected to explosive loadings is investigated using ABAQUS/Explicit®. Modelling of semi-buried structure is carried out by employing shell elements and soil is modelled using frequency independent spring-dashpot-mass model. The foam core is modelled using brick elements with reduced integration and volumetric hardening. Effect of strain rate on structural steel is modelled by employing Johnson-Cook (J-C) model. Results indicate that geometry of buttresses and foam core type governs structural response to dynamic loading. It is observed that inner wall of the structure is protected by foam provided in between walls and helps in blast mitigation. Further, it is observed that design of such structures is dependent on the correct identification of buttresses type and isolation of inner wall of structure by provision of energy absorbing materials like foam.


Main Subjects

ABAQUS/Explicit® (2013). User’s manual, Dassault Systemes Simulia Corporation, France.
Abdollahzadeh, G.R., Nemati, M. and Avazeh, M. (2016). “Probability assessment and risk management of progressive collapse in strategic buildings facing blast loads”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 49(2), 327-338.
Amadio, C., Bedon, C., Fasan, M. and Pecce, M.R. (2017). “Refined numerical modelling for the structural assessment of steel-concrete composite beam-to-column joints under seismic loads”, Engineering Structures, 138, 394-409.
Aune, V., Valsamos, G., Casadei, F., Larcher, M., Langseth, M. and Børvik, T. (2017). “Numerical study on the structural response of blast-loaded thin aluminium and steel plates”, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 99, 131-144.
Baker, W.E., Cox, P.A., Westine, P.S., Kulesz, J.J. and Strehlow, R.A. (1983). Explosion hazards and evaluation, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New York, U.S.A.
Bedon, C. and Amadio, C. (2014). “Exploratory numerical analysis of two-way straight cable-net façades subjected to air blast loads”, Engineering Structures, 79, 276-289.
Bowles, J.E. (1997). Foundation analysis and design, McGraw-Hill, Singapore.
Brode, H.L. (1955). “Numerical solutions of spherical blast waves”, Journal of Applied Physics, 26(6), 766-75.
Clough, R.W. and Penzien, J. (1975). Dynamics of structures, McGraw Hill, New York, U.S.A.
Deshpande, V.S. and Fleck, N. A. (2000). “Isotropic constitutive model for metallic foams”, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 48(6-7), 1253-1276.
Drake, J. L. and Little Jr., C.D. (1983). “Ground shock from penetrating conventional weapons”, ADP001706, Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station Vicksburg, Mississippi, Colorado, U.S.A.
Figuli, L., Bedon, C., Zvaková, Z. and Kavický, V. (2017). “Dynamic analysis of a blast loaded steel structure”, Procedia Engineering, 199, 2463-2469.
Gebbeken, N., Huebner, M., Larcher, M., Michaloudis, G. and Pietzsch, A. (2013) “Concrete and reinforced concrete structures subjected to explosion and impact”, Beton-Und Stahlbetonbau, 108(8), 515-527.
Goel, M.D., Matsagar, V.A. and Gupta, A.K. (2011). “Dynamic response of stiffened plates under air blast”, International Journal of Protective Structures, 2(1), 139-155.
Goel, M.D., Chakraborty, T. and Matsagar, V.A. (2012a). “Dynamic response of steel-sand composite stiffened plates under impulsive loading”, Journal of Battlefield Technology, 15(3), 1-7.
Goel, M.D., Matsagar, V.A., Gupta, A.K. and Marburg, S. (2012b). “An abridged review of blast wave parameters”, Defence Science Journal, 62(5), 300-306.
Goel, M.D. and Matsagar, V.A. (2013a). “Blast resistant design of structures”, Practice Periodical in Structural Design and Construction, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 19(2), 04014007.
Goel, M.D., Matsagar, V.A., Gupta, A.K. and Marburg, S. (2013b). “Strain rate sensitivity of closed cell aluminum fly ash foam”, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 23, 1080-1089
Goel, M.D., Matsagar, V.A., Marburg, S. and Gupta, A.K. (2013c). “Comparative performance of stiffened sandwich foam panels under impulsive loading”, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facility, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 27(5), 540-549.
Goel, M.D., Matsagar, V.A. and Gupta, A.K. (2014). “Blast resistance of stiffened sandwich panels with aluminum closed cell foam", Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, 11(13), 2497-2515.
Goel, M.D. (2015). “Blast: Characteristics, loading and computation, An overview”, Advances in Structural Engineering Mechanics, Vasant Matsagar (ed.), 1, 417-434.
Goel, M.D., Matsagar, V.A. and Gupta, A.K. (2015). “Blast resistance of stiffened sandwich panels with aluminum cenosphere syntactic foam”, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 77, 134-146.
Hao, H. (2009). “Numerical modelling of masonry wall response to blast loads”, Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 10(1), 37-52.
Henrych, J. (1979). The dynamics of explosion and its use. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Norway.
Johnson, G.R. and Cook, W.H. (1983). “A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures”, Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Ballistics, The Hague, Netherlands.
Karlos, V., Solomos, G. and Larcher, M. (2016). “Analysis of the blast wave decay coefficient using the Kingery–Bulmash data”, International Journal of Protective Structures, 7(3), 409-429.
Kingery, C.N. and Bulmash, G. (1984). “Airblast parameters from TNT spherical air burst and hemispherical surface burst”, US Army Armament and Development Center, Ballistic Research Laboratory.
Kinney G. and Graham K. (1985). Explosive shocks in air, Springer-Verlag, New York, U.S.A.
Kumar, M., Goel, M.D., Matsagar, V.A. and Rao, K.S. (2015). “Response of semi-buried structures subjected to multiple blast loading considering soil-structure interaction”, Indian Geotechnical Journal, 45(3), 243-253.
Larcher, M.  Arrigoni, M., Bedon, C., van Doormaal, J.C.A.M., Haberacker, C. Hüsken, G., Millon, O.,  Saarenheimo, A.,  Solomos, G.,  Thamie, L.,  Valsamos, G.,  Williams, A. and Stolz, A. (2016). “Design of blast-loaded glazing windows and facades: A review of essential requirements towards standardization”, Advances in Civil Engineering, 2016, 1-14.
Pereira, J., Campos, J. and Lourenco, P. (2014). “Experimental study on masonry infill walls under blast loading”, Proceedings of the 9th International Masonry Conference, Guimarães, Portugal.
Rajendran, R. and Lee, J.M. (2009). “Blast loaded plates”, Marine Structure, 22, 99-127.
Remennikov, A.M. (2003). “A review of methods for predicting bomb blast effects on buildings”, Journal of Battlefield Technology, 6(3), 5-10.
Seyedan, M.J. and Seyedi, H.E. (2015). “Significance of soil compaction on blast resistant behaviour of underground structures: a parametric study”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 48(2), 359-372.
Shuaib, M. and Daoud, O.  (2015). “Numerical modelling of reinforced concrete slabs under blast loads of close-in detonations using the Lagrangian approach”, Journal of  Physics: Conference Series, 628(1),1-8.
Smith, P.D. and Hetherington, J.G. (1994). Blast and ballistic loading of structures, Butterworth Heinemann Limited, U.K.
U.S. Department of the Army (1986). “Fundamentals of protective design for conventional weapons”, Technical Manual, TM 5-855-1, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
U.S. Department of the Army, Navy and Air Force (1990). “The design of structures to resist the effects of accidental explosions”, Technical Manual, TM 5-1300, Washington DC, U.S.A.
Vatani, O.A. and Kiakojouri, F. (2015). “Non-linear dynamic analysis of steel hollow I-core sandwich panel under air blast loading”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 48(2), 323-344.
Wang, Z. and Lu, Y. (2003). “Numerical analysis on dynamic deformation mechanism of soils under blast loading”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 23(8), 705-714.
Wolf, J.P. (1989). “Soil-structure-interaction analysis in time domain”, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 111(3), 381-393.
Wolf, J.P. (1997). “Spring‐dashpot‐mass models for foundation vibrations”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 26(9), 931-949.
Yang, F., Niu, W., Jing, L., Wang, Z., Zhao, L. and Ma, H. (2015). “Experimental and numerical studies of the anti-penetration performance of sandwich panels with aluminum foam cores”, Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica, 28(6), 735-746.
Yang, Z. (1997). “Finite element simulation of response of buried shelters to blast loadings”, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 24(3), 113-132.
Volume 51, Issue 2
December 2018
Pages 445-460
  • Receive Date: 28 February 2018
  • Revise Date: 29 August 2018
  • Accept Date: 21 October 2018
  • First Publish Date: 01 December 2018