A Superelastic Retrofitting Method for Mitigating the Effects of Seismic Excitations on Irregular Bridges

Document Type : Research Papers


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, fahmideh st, 65178-38695 Hamedan, Iran

2 School of civil engineering, Sharif University

3 School of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran


Irregularities in bridge pier stiffness concentrate the ductility demand on short piers; while not operating on the longer and more flexible ones. The existence of non-uniform, ductility demand distribution in bridges significantly influences seismic response. As such, this paper proposes a new approach for balancing the ductility demand in irregular bridges by utilizing shape memory alloys (SMAs). An irregular, single column bent viaduct with unequal pier heights is modeled and used as a reference bridge. To enhance seismic behavior of the bridge, a fixed bearing at the top of the short pier is replaced by a sliding bearing and two groups of SMA bars. SMAs are designed to keep their maximum strain within the super-elastic range. The seismic response of the controlled bridge is compared with a reference bridge through parametric studies using a set of suitable ground motion records. Study parameters include SMA lengths, short pier reinforcement ratios, design strain of SMA elements, and the heights of the medium and long piers. The proposed method successfully reduced the response of the short pier and, hence, improved the overall seismic behavior.


Main Subjects

Alvandi, S. and Ghassemieh, M., (2014), “Seismic evaluation of base isolated system equipped with Shape memory alloys”, Advanced Materials Research, 831, 110-114.
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (2007). AASHTO, AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Washington, DC.
Aryan, H. and Ghassemieh, M., (2014). “Mitigation of vertical and horizontal seismic excitations on bridges utilizing shape memory alloy system”, Advanced Materials Research, 831, 90-94.
Aryan, H. and Ghassemieh, M. (2015). “Seismic enhancement of multi-span continuous bridges subjected to three-directional excitations”, Smart Materials and Structures, 24(4), 45030.
Aryan, H. and Ghassemieh, M. (2017). “A superelastic protective technique for mitigating the effects of vertical and horizontal seismic excitations on highway bridges”, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 28(12), 1533-1552.
Baker, J.W., Lin, T., Shahi, S.K. and Jayaram, N. (2011). New ground motion selection procedures and selected motions for the PEER transportation research program, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center.
Brocca, M., Brinson, L.C. and Bazant, Z.P. (2002). “Three-dimensional Constitutive Model for Shape Memory Alloys Based on Microplane Model” Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 50, 1051-1077.
Calvi, G.M. and Pinto, P.E. (1994). “Seismic design of bridges: experimental and analytical research”, Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp. 2899-2904.
Farmani, M.A. and Ghassemieh, M. (2016). “Shape memory alloy-based moment connections with superior self-centering properties”, Smart Materials and Structures, 25(7), 075028.
Farmani, M.A. and Ghassemieh, M. (2017). “Steel beam-to-column connections equipped with SMA tendons and energy dissipating devices including shear tabs or web hourglass pins”, Journal of Steel Constructional Research, 135, 30-48.
Federation Internationale du Beton (FIB) (2007). Seismic bridge design and retrofit—structural solutions, FIB Bulletin 39.
FEMA (2009), Quantification of Building Seismic Performance Factors (FEMA P-695). Prepared by the Applied Technology Council for the Federal Emergency Management Agency Washington, DC.
Ghassemieh, M., Bahari, M.R., Ghodratian, S.M. and Nojoumi, S.A. (2012). “Improvement of concrete shear wall structures by smart materials”, Open Journal of Civil Engineering,2, 87-95.
Ghassemieh, M., Ghodratian, S.M., Bahari, M.R. and Nojoumi, S.A. (2013). “Seismic enhancement of coupled shear walls using shape memory alloys”, Journal of Civil Engineering and Science, 2(2), 93-101.
Ghassemieh, M., Mostafazadeh, M. and Sadeh, M.S. (2012). “Seismic control of concrete shear wall using shape memory alloys”, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 23(5), 535-543.
Ghassemieh, M., Rezapour, M. and Sadeghi, V. (2017). “Effectiveness of the shape memory alloy reinforcement in concrete coupled shear walls”, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 28(5), 640-652.
Guo, A., Zhao, Q. and Li, H. (2012). “Experimental study of a highway bridge with shape memory alloy restrainers focusing on the mitigation of unseating and pounding”, Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 11(2), 195–204.
Han, Y.L., Yin, H.Y., Xiao, E.T., Sun, Z.L. and Li, A.-Q. (2006). “A kind of NiTi-wire shape memory alloy damper to simultaneously damp tension, compression and torsion”, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 22(2), 241-262.
Isaković, T. and Fischinger, M. (2006). “Higher modes in simplified inelastic seismic analysis of single column bent viaducts”, Earthquake engineering & structural dynamics, 35(1), 95-114.
Isaković, T., Lazaro, M.P.N. and Fischinger, M. (2008). “Applicability of pushover methods for the seismic analysis of single-column bent viaducts”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 37(8), 1185-1202.
Johnson, R., Padgett, J.E., Maragakis, M.E., DesRoches, R. and Saiidi, M.S. (2008). “Large scale testing of nitinol shape memory alloy devices for retrofitting of bridges”, Smart Materials and Structures, 17(3), 035018.
Kappos, A.J., Manolis, G.D. and Moschonas, I.F. (2002). “Seismic assessment and design of R/C bridges with irregular configuration, including SSI effects”, Engineering Structures, 24(10), 1337-1348.
McKenna, (2011). “OpenSees: a framework for earthquake engineering simulation, Computing in Science and Engineering, 13(4), 58-66.
Motahari, S.A., Ghassemieh, M. and Abolmaali, S.A. (2007). “Implementation of shape memory alloy dampers for passive control of structures subjected to seismic excitations”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 63(12), 1570-1579.
Ozbulut, O.E. and Hurlebaus, S. (2011). “Seismic assessment of bridge structures isolated by a shape memory alloy/rubber-based isolation system”, Smart Materials and Structures, 20(1), 015003.
Pinto, A.V., Verzeletti, G., Magonette, G., Pegon, P., Negro, P. and Guedes, J. (1996). “Pseudo-dynamic testing of large-scale R/C bridges in ELSA”, 11th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp. 23-28.
Roh, H., Reinhorn, A.M. and Lee, J.S. (2012). “Modeling and cyclic behavior of segmental bridge column connected with shape memory alloy bars”, Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 11(3), 375-389.
Saiidi, M.S. and Wang, H. (2006). “Exploratory study of seismic response of concrete columns with shape memory alloys reinforcement”, ACI Structural Journal, 103(3), 436-443.
Sharabash, A.M. and Andrawes, B.O. (2009). “Application of shape memory alloy dampers in the seismic control of cable-stayed bridges”, Engineering Structures, 31(2), 607-616.
Shrestha, K.C., Araki, Y., Nagae, T., Omori, T., Sutou, Y., Kainuma, R. and Ishida, K. (2011). “Applicability of Cu-Al-Mn shape memory alloy bars to retrofitting of historical masonry constructions”, Earthquakes and Structures, 2(3), 233-256.