Evaluation of Performance Levels of Zipper-Braced Frames Using Structural Damage Index

Document Type : Research Papers


1 Ayatollah Amoli Branch,Islamic Azad University

2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, Iran

3 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran


The determination of structural and nonstructural damage under earthquake excitations is usually considered as a key factor in performance-based seismic design (PBSD) methods is In this regard, various damage indices have been developed in recent years to quantitatively estimate structural damage. The aim of this study is to develop a simple method to evaluate performance levels of zipper-braced frame (ZBF) structures by using damage indices based on the results of nonlinear static and dynamic analyses. To this end, 5, 7, 10, 12 and 15 story zipper-braced frames (ZBF) are modeled and undergone to twenty different synthetic ground motion records and their damage values have been computed. In dynamic damage analysis procedure, the performance levels of the ZBF models have been computed based on the FEMA-356 standard. Considering the results of the nonlinear dynamic analyses, the correlation between FEMA-356 performance levels and damage indices has been investigated and some simplified formula is presented. On the other side, in static damage analysis approach, by using pushover analysis the performance points of ZBF models have been estimated based on capacity spectrum method (CSM) provided by ATC-40 standard. Then, the correlation between ATC-40 performance levels and some static damage indices has been investigated and some simple equations have been proposed. These relations can be utilized to estimate the performance levels of structures from damage indices. Finally, tables are represented for determination of the structural damage index values for assumed performance levels of the ZBF structures based on static and dynamic damage analysis.


Main Subjects

Abdollahzadeh, G., Sazjini, M. and Asghari, A. (2015). “Seismic fragility assessment of Special Truss Moment Frames (STMF) using the capacity spectrum method”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 48(1), 1-8.
AISC-LRFD, (2005). Seismic provisions for structural steel buildings, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago.
Arjomandi, K., Estekanchi, E. and Vafai, A. (2009). “Correlation between structural performance levels and damage indexes in steel frames subjected to earthquakes”, Scientia Iranica, Transaction A: Civil Engineering, 16(2), 147-155.
ASCE7-10, (2010). Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures, American Society of Civil Engineers: Reston, VA.
ATC-40, (1997). Seismic evaluation and retrofit of concrete buildings, California Seismic Safety Commission, Applied Technology Council.
Banon H. and Veneziano, D. (1982). “Seismic safety of reinforced concrete members and structures”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 10(2), 179-193.
Bertero, R.D. and Bresler, B. (1971). “Seismic safety of reinforce concrete members and structure”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural dynamic, 10, 179-193.
Bozorgnia, Y. and Bertero, V.V. (2001a). “Evaluation of damage potential of recorded earthquake ground motion”, 96th Annual Meeting of Seismological Society of America.
Bozorgnia, Y. and Bertero, V.V. (2001b). “Improved shaking and damage parameters for post-earthquake applications”, Proceedings of SMIP01 Seminar on Utilization of Strong-Motion Data, Los Angeles.
Bozorgnia, Y. and Bertero, V.V. (2002). “Improved damage parameters for post-earthquake applications”, Proceedings of SMIP02 Seminar on Utilization of Strong-Motion Data, Los Angeles.
Bracci, J.M., Reinhorn, A.M., Mander, J.B. and Kunnath, S.K. (1989). “Deterministic model for seismic damage evaluation of reinforced concrete structures”, Technical Report NCEER-89-0033, State University of New York, Buffalo.
Colombo, A. and Negro, P.A. (2005). “Damage index of generalized applicability”, Engineering Structures, 27(8), 1164-1174.
DiPasquale, E. and Cakmak, A.S. (1990). “Seismic damage assessment using linear models”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 9(4), 194-215.
Elenas, A. (2013). “Intensity parameters as damage potential descriptors of earthquakes”, in Computational Methods in Stochastic Dynamics, Springer, 327-334.
Fardis, M.N. (1994). “Damage measures and failure criteria for reinforced concrete members”, Proceedings of 10th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Balkema (Rotterdam), Vienna.
FEMA-273, (1997). NEHRP guidelines for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington D.C.
FEMA-356, (2000). Standard and commentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings, Federal Emergency Management Agency.
Ghobarah, A., Abou-Elfath, H. and Biddah, A. (1999). “Response-based damage assessment of structures”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 28(1), 79-104.
Ghosh, S., Datta, D. and Katakdhond, A.A. (2011). “Estimation of the Park–Ang damage index for planar multi-storey frames using equivalent single-degree systems”, Engineering Structures, 33(9), 2509-2524.
Habibi, A. R., Izadpanah, M. and Yazdani, A. (2013). “Inelastic damage analysis of RCMRFS using pushover method”, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Civil Engineering, 37(C2), 345-352.
Hancock, J. and Bommer, J.J. (2006). “A state-of-knowledge review of the influence of strong-motion duration on structural damage”, Earthquake Spectra, 22(3), 827-845.
IBC-2012, (2012). International building code, International Code Council, Country Club Hills: USA.
Jeong, S. and Elnashai, A.S. (2007). “Fragility relationships for torsionally-imbalanced buildings using three-dimensional damage characterization”, Engineering Structures, 29, 2172-2182.
Kamaris, G.S., Hatzigeorgiou, G.D. and Beskos, D.E. (2013). “A new damage index for plane steel frames exhibiting strength and stiffness degradation under seismic motion”, Engineering Structures, 46, 727-736.
Khatib, I.F., Mahin, S.A. and Pister, K.S. (1988). “Seismic behavior of concentrically braced steel frames”,Report No. UCB/EERC-88/01, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley.
Kunnath, S.K., Reinhorn, A.M. and Lobo, R.F. (1992). “IDARC Version 3: A program for the inelastic damage analysis of RC structures”, Technical Report NCEER-92-0022, National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY.
Mazzoni, S., McKenna, F., Scott, M.H. and Fenves, GL. (2016). OpenSEES command language manual,Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, http://opensees.berkeley.edu.
Nazri, F.M. and Alexander, N.A. (2012). “Determining yield and ultimate loads for MRF buildings”, Proceedings of the ICE - Structures and Buildings.
Nazri, FM. and Alexander, NA. (2014). “Exploring the relationship between earthquake intensity and building damage using single and multi-degree of freedom models”, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 41(4), 343-356.
Park, Y.J. and Ang, A.H.S. (1985). “Mechanistic seismic damage model for RC”, Journal of Structural Engineering, 111(4), 722-739.
Park, Y.J., Ang, A.H. and Wen, Y.K. (1987). “Damage-limiting aseismic design of buildings”, Earthquake Spectra, 3(1), 1-26.
Poljansek, K. and Fajfar, P. (2008). “A new damage model for the seismic damage assessment of reinforced concrete frame structures”, 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China.
Powell, H.G .and Allahabadi, R. (1988). “Seismic damage prediction by deterministic methods: Concepts and Procedures”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 16, 719-734.
Rajeev, P. and Wijesundara, K.K. (2014). “Energy-based damage index for concentrically braced steel structure using continuous wavelet transform”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 103, 241-250.
Reinhorn, A.M. and Valles, R.E. (1995). “Damage evaluation in inelastic response of structures: a deterministic approach”, Report No. NCEER-95-xxxx, National Centre for Earthquake Engineering Research, State University of New York at Buffalo.
Rodriguez, M.E. and Padilla, D. (2009). “A damage index for the seismic analysis of reinforced concrete members”, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 13(3), 364-383.
Rodriguez, M.E. (2015). “Evaluation of a proposed damage index for a set of earthquakes”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 44(8), 1255-1270.
Sabelli, R. (2001). “Research on improving the design and analysis of earthquake resistant steel-braced frames”, NEHRP Fellowship Report No. PF2000-9, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, California.
SeismoMatch, (2016). “A computer program for adjusting earthquake records to match a specific target response spectrum”, Available from: http://www.seismosoft.com.
Shahraki, H. and Shabakhty, N. (2015). “Seismic performance reliability of RC structures: Application of response surface method and systemic approach”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 48(1), 47-68.
Tremblay, R. and Tirca, L. (2003). “Behavior and design of multi-story zipper concentrically braced steel frames for the mitigation of soft-story response”, Proceedings of the Conference on Behavior of Steel Structures in Seismic Areas.
Uriz, P. and Mahin, S. (2004). “Summary of test results for UC Berkeley special concentric braced frame specimen No. 1 (SCBF)”, http://www.ce.berkeley.edu/_patxi/SCBF/publications/PrelimSCBFtestResul.pdf.
Usami, T. and Kumar, S. (1998). “Inelastic seismic design verification method for steel bridge piers using a damage index based hysteretic model”, Engineering Structures, 20(4), 472-480.
Vaseghi, J., Esmaeilnia, M. and Ganjavi, B. (2015). “Achievement of minimum seismic damage for zipper braced frames based on uniform deformations theory”, Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, 3(1), 43-60.
Vaseghi, J., Esmaeilnia, M. and Ganjavi, B. (2016). “Ductility reduction factor for zipper-braced frames”, European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, DOI: 10.1080/19648189.2016.1262283.
Williams, S.M. and Sexsmith, G.R. (1995). “Seismic damage indices for concrete structures: A state of the art review”, Earthquake Spectra, 11(2), 319-349.
Yang, C., Leon, R. and DesRoches, R. (2008). “Design and behavior of zipper-braced frames”, Engineering Structures, 30, 1092-1100.
Volume 50, Issue 2
December 2017
Pages 353-374
  • Receive Date: 17 March 2017
  • Revise Date: 03 August 2017
  • Accept Date: 11 August 2017
  • First Publish Date: 01 December 2017