Using Different Methods of Nanofabrication as a New Way to Activate Supplementary Cementitious Materials; a Review

Document Type : Review Paper


Road, Housing and Urban Development Research Center (BHRC)


Reducing the consumption of cement with simultaneous utilizing waste materials as cement replacement is preferred for reasons of environmental protection. Blended cements consist of different supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), such as fly ash, silica fume, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS), natural pozzolans, etc. These materials should be chemically activated to show effective cementitious properties. The present review article reports three different methods of nanofabrication, using ultrasound irradiation, solvothermal/hydrothermal process and microwave irradiation, that were used for activation of two types of SCMs. Based on the obtained results, these methods are suggested as effective methods for nanomodification of supplementary cementing materials.


Main Subjects

Alavi, M.A. and Morsali, A. (2010). “Syntheses and characterization of Sr(OH)2 and SrCO3 nanostructures by ultrasonic method”, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 17(1), 132-8.
Askarinejad, A. and Morsali, A. (2008). “Syntheses and characterization of CdCO3 and CdO nanoparticles by using a sonochemical method”, Materials Letters,  62(3), 478-482.
Askarinejad, A. and Morsali, A. (2009a). “Direct ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of sphere-like nanocrystals of spinel Co3O4 and Mn3O4”,Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 16(1), 124-131.
Askarinejad, A. and Morsali, A. (2009b). “Synthesis and characterization of mercury oxide unusual nanostructures by ultrasonic method”, Chemical Engineering Journal, 153(1-3) 183-186.
Askarinejad, A., Iranpour, M., Bahramifar. N. and Morsali. A. (2010). “Synthesis and characterization of In(OH)3 and In2O3 nanoparticles by sol-gel and solvothermal methods”, Journal of Experimental Nanoscience, 5 (4), 294-301.
Askarinejad, A., Pourkhorshidi. A.R. and Parhizkar. T. (2012). “Evaluation the pozzolanic reactivity of sonochemically fabricated nano natural pozzolan”, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 19(1), 119-24.
Askarinejad, A., Zisti, F., Pourkhorshidi. A.R. and Parhizkar. T. (2013). “Sonochemical nano fabrication as a new method for activation of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS)”, QScience Connect, Nov., 29.
Aslani, A., Morsali, A., Yilmaz, V.T. and Kazak, C., (2009). “Hydrothermal and sonochemical synthesis of a nano-sized 2D lead(II) coordination polymer, A precursor for nano-structured PbO and PbBr2”, Journal of Molecular Structure , 929(1-3), 187-192.
ASTM C125. (1993). “Standard terminology relating to concrete and concrete aggregates”, American Society for Testing and Materials.
Cyr, M., Lawrence, P. and Ringot, E. (2006). “Efficiency of mineral admixtures in mortars”, Cement and Concrete Research, 36(2), 264-277.
Demirboğa, R., İ Türkmen, İ. and Karakoc, M.B. (2004). “Relationship between ultrasonic velocity and compressive strength for high-volume mineral-admixtured concrete”, Cement and Concrete Research, 34(12), 2329-2336.
Duran Atis, C. and Bilim, C. (2007). “Wet and dry cured compressive strength of concrete containing ground blast-furnace slag”, Building and Environment, 42(8), 3060-3065.
Feng, S., Pan, D. and Wang, Z. (2011). “Facile synthesis of cubic fluorite nano-Ce1_xZrxO2 via hydrothermal crystallization method”, Advanced Powder Technology Journal, 22(5), 678-681.
Iwakai, K., Tago, T., Konno, H., Nakasaka, Y. and Masuda, T. (2011). “Preparation of nano-crystalline MFI zeolite via hydrothermal synthesis in water/surfactant/organic solvent using fumed silica as the Si source”, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 141(1-3), 167-174.
Jafari Nadoushan, M. and Ramezanianpour, A.A. (2016). “The effect of type and concentration of activators on flowability and compressive strength of natural pozzolan and slag-based geopolymers”, Construction and Building Materials, 111, 337-347.
Jin, D., Gu, X., Yu, X., Ding, G., Zhu, H. and Yao, K. (2008). “Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of hexagonal Mg(OH)2 nano-flake as a flame retardant”, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 112(3), 962-965. 
Lawrence, P., Cyr, M. and Ringot, E. (2005). “Mineral admixtures in mortars effect of type, amount and fineness of fine constituents on compressive strength”, Cement and Concrete Research, 35(6), 1092-1105.
Lin, K.L., Chang, W.C., Lin, D.F., Luo, H.L. and Tsai, M.C. (2008). “Effects of nano-SiO2 and different ash particle sizes on sludge ash–cement mortar”, Journal of Environmental Management, 88(4), 708-714.
Ltifi, M., Guefrech, A., Mounanga, P. and Khelidj, A. (2011). “Experimental study of the effect of addition of nano-silica on the behaviour of cement mortars Mounir”, Procedia Engineering, 10, 900-905.
Madani H., Ramezanianpour A.A. and Shahbazinia M., Bokaeian V. and Ahari Sh. (2016). “The influence of ultrafine filler materials on mechanical and durability characteristics of concrete”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 49(2), 251-262.
Najimi, M, Sobhani, J. and Pourkhorshidi, A.R. (2011). ” Durability of copper slag contained concrete exposed to sulfate attack”, Construction and Building Materials, 25(4), 1895-1905.  
Ojo, J.O. and Mohr, B. (2009). “A review of the analysis of cement hydration kinetics via 1H nuclear magnetic resonance”, Nanotechnology in construction: proceedings of the NICOM3 (3rd International Symposium on Nanotechnology in Construction), Prague, Czech Republic.
Owaid, H.M., Hamid, R. and Taha, M.R. (2014).  “Influence of thermally activated alum sludge ash on the engineering properties of multiple-blended binders concretes”, Construction and Building Materials, 61, 216-229.
Pacewskaa, B. and Wilińska, I. (2013). ” Hydration of Cement Composites Containing Large Amount of Waste Materials”, Modern Building Materials, Structures and Techniques, 57, 53-62.
Paul, D.R. and  Robeson, L.M.  (2008). “Polymer nanotechnology: Nanocomposites”, Polymer,  49(15), 3187-3204.
Pourghahramani, P. and Azami, M.A. (2015). “Mechanical activation of natural acidic igneous rocks for use in cement”, International Journal of Mineral Processing, 134(10), 82-88.
Prabakaran, K. and Rajeswari, S. (2009). “Spectroscopic investigations on the synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite from calcined eggshell by hydrothermal method using cationic surfactant as template”, Spectrochim Acta, 74(5), 1127-1134.
Raki, L. (2009). “Nanotechnology application for sustainable cement-based products”, Nanotechnology in Construction, Proceedings of NICOM3: 3rd International Symposium on Nanotechnology in Construction, Prague, Czech Republic.
Sanchez, F. and Sobolev, K. (2010). “Nanotechnology in concrete, A review”, Construction and Building Materials, 24(11), 2060-2071.
Scrivener, KL. (2009). “Nanotechnology and cementitious materials”, Proceedings of the NICOM3 (3rd International Symposium on Nanotechnology in Construction), Prague, Czech Republic.
Shi, C., Meyer, C. and Behnood, A. (2008). “Utilization of copper slag in cement and concrete”, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 52(10), 1115-1120.
Sobolev, K. (2009). “Engineering of SiO2 nanoparticles for optimal performance in nano cement-based materials”, Proceedings of the NICOM3 (3rd International Symposium on Nanotechnology in Construction), Prague, Czech Republic.
Souri A., Kazemi-Kamyab, H., Snellings, R., Naghizadeh,R., Golestani-Fard, F. and Scrivener, K. (2015).  “Pozzolanic activity of mechanochemically and thermally activated kaolins in cement”, Cement and Concrete Research,  77, 47-59.
Targan, S, Olgun, A., Erdogan, Y. and Sevinc, V. 2003). ” Influence of natural pozzolan, colemanite ore waste, bottom ash, and fly ash on the properties of Portland cement”, Cement and Concrete Research, 33(8), 1175-1182.  
Velosa, A.L. and Cachim, P.B., (2009). “Hydraulic-lime based concrete: Strength development using a pozzolanic addition and different curing conditions”, Construction and Building Materials, 23(5), 2107-2111.