Distribution of Building Nonstructural Components in Height Subjected to Cost of Damage for Low-Rise Office Buildings

Document Type: Research Papers

Authors

Amirkabir University of Technology

Abstract

Exceeded losses of nonstructural components from structural ones in most demolished buildings in previous earthquakes and its limitation on functionality of critical facilities and building serviceability after earthquakes should be got the point of view for accounting loss of building as a merit for building performance. This paper attempts to demonstrate the significant role of distribution pattern of building nonstructural components in height accounting for economic losses due to seismic excitation. To achieve this purpose a new modified distribution of nonstructural components in height is proposed for three typical steel moment frame models by office occupancy and  comparative assessments between two competing distribution of nonstructural components are conducted. Dealing with discussions, it could be concluded that the economic losses could be reduced by more astutely situating building nonstructural components in height considering type of dominated demands in a specific story without requirement to any alternation in component's type or quantity.

Keywords

Main Subjects


AISC. (2005). Manual of steel construction, AISC 2005. American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, Illinois, United States.

Alavi, B. and Krawinkler, H. (2000). “Consideration of near-fault ground motion effects in seismic design”, Proceeding of the 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand.

ASCE. (2007). Seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings, ASCE/SEI 41-06. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, United States.

ATC-58. (2011). Guidelines for seismic performance assessment of buildings, ATC-58. Applied Technology Council, Washington D.C. Retrieved October 13, 2014, from https://www.atccouncil.org/pdfs/ATC-58-50persentDraft.pdf

ASCE. (2010). Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures, ASCE/SEI 7-10. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia, United States.

Aslani, H. and Miranda, E. (2005). “Probabilistic earthquake loss estimation and loss disaggregation in buildings”, Report 157, Ph.D. Dissertation, John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Stanford University, United State.

Balaboni, B. (2014). RSmeans square foot costs 2014, RSMeans Engineering Department, 35th ed. New York, United States. 

Boroschek, R. and Retamales, R. (2001). “Damage observed in El Salvador's public hospital system during the January 13, 2001 earthquake”, WHO/PAHO Collaborating Center for Disaster Mitigation in Health Facilities, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Chock, G., Robertson, I., Nicholson, P., Brandes, H., Medley, E., Okubo, P., Hirshorn, B., Sumada, J., Kindred, T., Linurna, G., Sarwar, A., Dal Pino, J. and Holmes, W. (2006). “Compilation of observations of the October 15, 2006, Kiholo Bay (Mw 6.7) and Mahukona (Mw 6.0) earthquakes, Hawaii”, Report 31, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, United State.

COSMOS Ground Motions Databases, Retrieved May 05, 2016, from http://db.cosmos-eq.org/scripts/default.plx

FEMA. (2009). Quantification of building seismic performance factors, FEMA P695, Building Seismic Safety Council for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Federal Emergency Management Agencies, Washington D.C.

FEMA. (2012). Seismic performance assessment of buildings, Volume 1 – Methodology, FEMA P-58-1, Building seismic safety council for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Federal Emergency Management Agencies, Washington D.C.

FEMA. (2012), Seismic performance assessment of buildings, Volume 3 - Supporting Electronic Materials and Background Documentation: 3.1 Performance Assessment Calculation Tool (PACT), Version 2.9.65, FEMA P-58-3, Building Seismic Safety Council for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Federal Emergency Management Agencies, Washington, D.C.

Filiatrault, A. and Christopoulos, C. (2002). “Guidelines, specifications, and seismic performance characterization of nonstructural building components and equipment”, Report PEER 2002/05, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Berkeley, CA.

Filiatrault, A., Kuan, S. and Tremblay, R. (2004). “Shake table testing of bookcase – partition wall systems”, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 31(4), 664-676.

Filiatrault, A. and Sullivan, T. (2014). “Performance-based seismic design of nonstructural building components: The next frontier of earthquake engineering”, Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 13(1), 17-46.

French, S.P. (2012). “Modeling nonstructural damage for metropolitan building stocks”, Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal.

Gupta, A. and Krawinkler, H. (1999). “Seismic demand for performance evaluation of steel moment resisting frames structures”, Report 132, Ph.D. Dissertation, John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Stanford University, United State.

Gupta, A. and McDonald, B. M. (2008). “Performance of building structures during the October 15, 2006 Hawaii earthquake”, Proceedings of the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China.

Haj Najafi, L. and Tehranizadeh, M. (2015a). “Ground motion selection and scaling in practice”, Peryodica Polytechnica - Civil Engineering, 59(2), 233-248.

Haj Najafi, L. and Tehranizadeh, M. (2015b). “Selecting appropriate intensity measure in view of efficiency”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 48(2), 269-287.

Haselton, C. B. and Deierlein, G. G. (2007). “Assessing seismic collapse safety of modern reinforced concrete frame buildings”,Technical Report 156, Ph.D. Dissertation, John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Stanford University, United States.

Haselton, C.B., Goulet, C.A., Mitrani-Reiser, J., Beck, J.L., Deierlein, G.G., Porter, K.A., Stewart, J.P. and Taciroglu, E. (2008). “An assessment to benchmark the seismic performance of a code-conforming reinforced concrete moment-frame building”, PEER Report 2007/12, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, College of Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, United States.

Ibarra, L. F., Medina, R. A. and Krawinkler, H. (2005). “Hysteretic models that incorporate strength and stiffness deterioration”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamic, 34(12), 1489-1511.

K-Net. (2015). “Strong-motions seismograph networks”, Retrieved May 05, 2016, from http://www.k-net.bosai.go.jp

Krawinkler, H. and Medina, R. (2004). “Seismic demands for nondeteriorating frame structures and their dependence on ground motions”, Report EER 2003/15, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.

Lignos D.G., Krawinkler H. and Whittaker, A.S. (2011). “Prediction and validation of sideway collapse of two scale models of a 4-story steel moment frame”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics,40(7), 807-825.

Lignos, D.G. and Krawinkler, H. (2012). “Sideway collapse of deteriorating structural system under seismic excitations”, Report 177, Ph.D. Dissertation, John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Stanford University, United State.

Lignos, D.G. and Krawinkler, H. (2013). “Development and utilization of structural component databases for performance-based earthquake engineering”, Journal of Structural Engineering, 139(8), 1382-1394.

Lignos, D.G. (2014). “Modeling steel moment resisting frames with OpenSees”, OpenSees Workshop, University of California, Berkeley, United States.

McGavin, G. and Patrucco, H. (1994). “Survey of nonstructural damage to healthcare facilities in the January 17, 1994 Northridge earthquake”, Report prepared for HMC Group, Ontario, Canada.

Mehanny, S. S. F. (1999). “Modeling and assessment of seismic performance of composite frames with reinforced concrete columns and steel beams”, Report 135, Ph.D. Dissertation, John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Stanford University, United State.

Miranda, E. and Ramirez, C.M. (2009). “Building-specific loss estimation methods and tools for simplified performance-based earthquake engineering”, Report 171, Ph.D. Dissertation, John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Stanford University, United State.

Nau, J. and Hall, W. (1984). “Scaling methods for earthquake response spectra”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 110(2), 91-109.

NIST. (1999). UNIFORMAT II elemental classification for building specifications, cost estimating, and cost analysis, NISTIR 6389, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Washington, D.C., Retrieved May 05, 2016, from http://www.bfrl.nist.gov/oae/publications/nistirs/6389.pdf

NIST. (2011). Soil-structure interaction for building structures, NIST/GCR 11-917-14, NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture for the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland.

Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Retrieved May 05, 2016, from www.peertestbeds.net

PEER Strong Ground Motion Database, Retrieved May 05, 2016, from http://peer.berkeley.edu/ peer_ ground_motion_database.

 Porter, K.A. (2005). “A taxonomy of building components for performance-based earthquake engineering”, Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics California Institute of Technology, PEER Award number EEC-9701568, Report PEER 2005/03, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.    

Porter, K.A., Johnson, G. Sheppard R. and Bachman, R. (2011). “Response to discussions of fragility of mechanical, electrical and plumbing equipment”, Earthquake Spectra, 27(1), 229-233.

Ramirez, C. and Miranda, E. (2009). “Building-specific loss estimation methods and tools for simplified performance-based earthquake engineering”, Report 171, Ph.D. Dissertation, John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Stanford University, United States.

Ruiz‐García, J. and Miranda, E. (2006). “Residual displacement ratios for assessment of existing structures”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 35(3), 315-336.

Ruiz‐García, J. and Miranda, E. (2008). “Probabilistic seismic assessment of residual drift demands in existing buildings”, Proceeding of the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Beijing, China.

Shahraki, H. and Shabakhty, N. (2015). “Seismic performance reliability of RC structures: Application of response surface method and systemic approach”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 48(1), 47-68.     

Shome, N., Cornell, C.A., Bazzurro, P., and Carballo, J.E. (1998). “Earthquakes, records and nonlinear responses”, Earthquake Spectra, 14(3), 469-500.

Soong, T.T. (1995). “Seismic behavior of nonstructural elements-state-of-the-art-report”, Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vienna, Austria.

Taghavi, S., and Miranda, E. (2003). “Response of nonstructural building elements”, Report PEER 2003/05, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.

Tehranizadeh, M. and Movahed, H. (2011). “Evaluation of steel moment-resisting frames performance in tall buildings in near fault areas”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 44(5), 621-633.     

Vamvatsikos, D. and Cornell C.A. (2002). “Incremental dynamic analysis”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 31(3), 491-514.

Zareian, F. and Medina, R.A. (2010), “A practical method for proper modeling of structural damping in inelastic plane Structural systems,” Computers and Structures, 88(1-2), 45-53.