University of Tehran
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal
2322-2093
2423-6691
46
2
2013
12
01
Analytical Solution for Two-Dimensional Coupled Thermoelastodynamics in a Cylinder
107
123
EN
Morteza
Eskandari-Ghadi
University of Tehran, Collage of Engineering, Dept. of Engineering Science
ghadi@ut.ac.ir
Mohammad
Rahimian
Collage of Civil Eng., Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
rahimian@ut.ac.ir
Amin
Mahmoodi
Collage of Civil Eng., Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
mahmoudi.am@gmail.com
Azizollah
Ardeshir-Behrestaghi
PhD candidate, Faculty of Civil Eng., Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran,
ardeshir_b_eng@yahoo.com
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.001
An infinitely long hollow cylinder containing isotropic linear elastic material is considered under the effect of arbitrary boundary stress and thermal condition. The two-dimensional coupled thermoelastodynamic PDEs are specified based on equations of motion and energy equation, which are uncoupled using Nowacki potential functions. The Laplace integral transform and Bessel-Fourier series are used to derive the solution for the potential functions, and then the displacements-, stresses- and temperature-potential relationships are used to determine the displacements, stresses and temperature fields. It is shown that the formulation presented here are identically collapsed on the solution existed in the literature for simpler case of axissymetric configuration. A numerical procedure is needed to evaluate the displacements, stresses and temperature at any point and any time. The numerical inversion method proposed by Durbin is applied to evaluate the inverse Laplace transforms of different functions involved in this paper. For numerical inversion, there exist many difficulties such as singular points in the integrand functions, infinite limit of the integral and the time step of integration. With a very precise attention, the desired functions have been numerically evaluated and shown that the boundary conditions have been satisfied very accurately. The numerical evaluations are graphically shown to make engineering sense for the problem involved in this paper for different case of boundary conditions. The results show the wave velocity and the time lack of receiving stress waves. The effect of temperature boundary conditions are shown to be somehow oscillatory, which is used in designing of such an elements.
Bessel-Fourier Series,Coupled Thermoelasticity,Laplace transform,Numerical Inversion,Potential Functions,Series Expansion,Singular Points
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40489.html
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40489_ba3890ac0ca4f37b332b7c85d6009ac0.pdf
University of Tehran
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal
2322-2093
2423-6691
46
2
2013
12
01
A Study of the Rockfill Material Behavior in Large-Scale Tests
125
143
EN
Ali
Ghanbari
Associate professor of civil engineering, Kharazmi University
ghanbari@tmu.ac.ir
Amir
Hamidi
Associate professor
Kharazmi University
Hamidi@tmu.ac.ir
Naseh
Abdolahzadeh
Researcher Student, Kharazmi University
naseh86@gmail.com
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.002
Inspecting the behavior of the rockfill materials is of significant importance in analysis of rockfill dams. Since the dimensions of grains in such materials are greater than the conventional sizes suitable for soil mechanics tests, it is necessary to experimentally study them in specific large-scale apparatuses. In this research, the behavior of rockfill materials in two large rockfill dams constructed in northwest of Iran were studied using large-scale direct shear and triaxial tests. Various indices regarding the quantity of particle breakage in rockfill materials were assessed for both dams and an experimental correlation has been proposed between the Los Angeles Abrasion Value and internal friction angle of rockfill material. Also, the effect of surcharge intensity, grain size distribution and degree of compaction on the shear strength of rockfill material for both dams was studied. The findings indicate that increase in particle breakage leads to reduction of internal friction angle. Also, for a specific sample the particle breakage index increases with an increase in surcharge, percentage of gravel and degree of compaction.
Direct Shear Test,Los Angeles Abrasion,Particle Breakage,Rockfill,Triaxial Test
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40500.html
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40500_f4a46a825011e062489983fe55f6120c.pdf
University of Tehran
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal
2322-2093
2423-6691
46
2
2013
12
01
Safety Analysis of the Patch Load Resistance of Plate Girders: Influence of Model Error and Variability
145
160
EN
Farzad
Shahabian
Academic staff
fshahabianm@yahoo.com
Sidi Mohammed
Elachachi
academic staff
sidi-mohammed.elachachi@ u-bordeaux1.fr
Denys
Breysse
Academic staff
denis.breysse@ u-bordeaux1.fr
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.003
This study aims to undertake a statistical study to evaluate the accuracy of nine models that have been previously proposed for estimating the ultimate resistance of plate girders subjected to patch loading. For each model, mean errors and standard errors, as well as the probability of underestimating or overestimating patch load resistance, are estimated and the resultant values are compared one to another. Prior to that, the models are initially calibrated in order to improve interaction formulae using an experimental data set collected from the literature. The models are then analyzed by computing design factors associated with a target risk level (probability of exceedance). These models are compared one to another considering uncertainties existed in material and geometrical properties. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate random variables. The statistical parameters of the calibrated models are calculated for various coefficients of variations regardless of their correlation with the random resistance variables. These probabilistic results are very useful for evaluating the stochastic sensitivity of the calibrated models.
calibration,Monte Carlo,Patch Loading,Plate Girder,Uncertainty
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40501.html
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40501_91476e2d55d97b70accc39c3349c9bb3.pdf
University of Tehran
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal
2322-2093
2423-6691
46
2
2013
12
01
Predicting Deficient Condition Performance of Water Distribution Networks
161
173
EN
Rajesh
Gupta
B.E. (Civil), M. Tech. (Env.), Ph.D.
drrajeshgupta123@hotmail.com
Mohd Abbas
Haider
Abdy Sayyed
B.E. (Civil), M. Tech (Env.)
abbas_vnit@yahoo.co.in
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.004
A water distribution network is subjected to various abnormal conditions such as pipe breaks, pump failures, excessive demands etc. in the design period. Under such conditions, the network may not be able to meet required demands at desired pressures, and becomes deficient. Traditional network analysis assumes nodal demands to be satisfied and available nodal pressures are calculated. However, assumption that demands are satisfied at all nodes is not true under deficient conditions. Therefore, under deficient conditions nodal demands and pressures are considered simultaneously through head-flow relationships to calculate available nodal flows. This type of analysis that determines available flows is termed as node flow analysis or pressure-driven or dependent wherein, outflows are considered as function of available pressure. Various node head-flow relationships (NHFR) have been suggested by researchers to correlate available flow and available pressure based on required flow and required pressure. Methods using these NHFRs have been classified herein as direct and indirect approaches. Applications of these approaches have been shown with two illustrative examples and results are compared.
Node Flow Analysis,Pressure-Dependent Analysis,Water distribution networks
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40502.html
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40502_a0cef8d06e5287ef71d39da6a44c1477.pdf
University of Tehran
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal
2322-2093
2423-6691
46
2
2013
12
01
Seismic Behavior Evaluation of Concrete Elevated Water Tanks
175
188
EN
saeed
bozorgmehrnia
faculty of engineering, guilan university
bozorgmehr@semnan.ac.ir
malek mohammad
ranjbar
faculty of engineering, guilan university
mmranjbar@gmail.com
rahmat
madandoust
faculty of engineering, guilan university
rmadandoust@guilan.ac.ir
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.005
Elevated tanks are important structures in storing vital products, such as petroleum products for cities and industrial facilities, as well as water storage. These structures have various types and are constructed in a way that a greater portion of their weight is concentrated at an elevation much about the base. Damage to these structures during strong ground motions may lead to fire or other hazardous events. In this research, a reinforced concrete elevated water tank, with 900 cubic meters capacity, exposed to three pairs of earthquake records was analyzed in time history using mechanical and finite-element modeling techniques. The liquid mass of the tank was modeled as lumped mass known as sloshing mass, or impulsive mass. The corresponding stiffness constants associated with the lumped mass were determined depending upon the properties of the tank wall and liquid mass. Tank responses including base shear, overturning moment, tank displacement, and sloshing displacement were also calculated. Obtained results revealed that the system responses are highly influenced by the structural parameters and the earthquake characteristics such as frequency content.
Base Shear,Earthquake Characteristics,Fluid-Structure Interaction,Overturning Moment,Seismic Behavior,Sloshing Displacement
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40503.html
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40503_f389bfd6bed6a5e55cacb799fcfe9f90.pdf
University of Tehran
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal
2322-2093
2423-6691
46
2
2013
12
01
Numerical Simulation of Free Surface in the Case of Plane Turbulent Wall Jets in Shallow Tailwater
189
198
EN
mitra
javan
1 School of Civil Engineering
The University of Razi
Kermanshah, Tagh Bostan
IRAN
javanmi@gmail.com
afshin
Eghbalzadeh
School of Civil Engineering
The University of Razi
Kermanshah, Tagh Bostan
IRAN
afeghbal@razi.ac.ir
Masoud
Montazeri Namin
School of Civil Engineering
The University of Tehran
Tehran, 16 Azar St., Enghelab Ave.
IRAN
mnamin@ut.ac.ir
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.006
Wall-jet flow is an important flow field in hydraulic engineering, and its applications include flow from the bottom outlet of dams and sluice gates. In this paper, the plane turbulent wall jet in shallow tailwater is simulated by solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations using the standard turbulence closure model. This study aims to explore the ability of a time splitting method on a non-staggered grid in curvilinear coordinates for simulation of two-dimensional (2D) plane turbulent wall jets with finite tailwater depth. In the developed model, the kinematic free-surface boundary condition is solved simultaneously with the momentum and continuity equations, so that the water surface elevation can be obtained along with the velocity and pressure fields as part of the solution. 2D simulations are carried out for plane turbulent wall jets free surface in shallow tailwater. The comparison undertaken between numerical results and experimental measurements show that the numerical model can capture the velocity field and the drop in the water surface elevation at the gate with reasonable accuracy.
numerical simulation,Free Surface,Shallow Tailwater,Turbulent Flow,Water Jets
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40504.html
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40504_d0911f69228cc3f703e1c4f40301e40e.pdf
University of Tehran
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal
2322-2093
2423-6691
46
2
2013
12
01
Effect of Crest Roughness on Flow Characteristics over Circular Weirs
199
207
EN
Rasoul
Ghobadian
Hydraulic Structures
rsghobadian@gmail.com
Ali
Fattahi
Water Resource Engineering
Ali.fattahi.ch@gmail.com
Milad
Farmanifard
Young Researchers Club, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University
Milad.farmanifard@gmail.com
Arash
Ahmadi
Water Civil Engineering
Arash.ahmadi229@yahoo.com
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.007
Different construction materials with different roughness used to make circular weirs highly affect surface roughness and, in turn, flow hydraulics passing over these structures. In the present research, numerous experiments under different hydraulic conditions were performed on a physical model to study the effects of roughness on flow hydraulics over a circular weir. The flow hydraulics included velocity profile, discharge coefficient and longitudinal water surface profile. The actual water surface elevation and velocity profile at different cross sections were measured using a point gauge and micro current meter, respectively. About 200 experimental tests were performed on a circular weir made of polyethylene with 29.5 cm height, 30cm wide, and 7.5 cm radius. The results showed that for a constant discharge, as the weir surface roughness increases the upstream water level over the weir increases and the discharge coefficient reduces. The velocity profile at upstream sections of the weir crest is extremely different from that over the weir crest while the velocity profile at downstream sections of the weir crest follows the same pattern as those experienced at the weir crest. Also, the increased roughness makes the velocity profile over the weir more uniform, with a higher average velocity. Finally the effects of roughness on velocity values are less near weir in comparison with water surface.
discharge coefficient,Experimental Test,Relative Roughness,Velocity profile
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40505.html
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40505_8a0a0f8ac6de7f8c06d2973715743b90.pdf
University of Tehran
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal
2322-2093
2423-6691
46
2
2013
12
01
Probabilistic Assessment of Pseudo-Static Design of Gravity-Type Quay Walls
209
219
EN
Mohammad Ali
Lotfollahi-Yaghin
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
lotfollahi@tabrizu.ac.ir
Mastoureh
Gholipour Salimi
Faculty of civil Engineering, university of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
salimi_iust@yahoo.com
Hamid
Ahmadi
Faculty of civil Engineering, university of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
H-Ahmadi@tabrizu.ac.ir
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.008
Failure of the quay walls due to earthquakes results in severe economic loss. Because of hazards threatening such inexpensive nodes of national and international transportation networks, seismic design of quay walls is still an evolving topic in marine structural engineering. This study investigates the sensitivity of the gravity-type quay wall stability respect to uncertain soil and seismic properties using ultimate limit-sate pseudo-static design process. Stability is defined in terms of safety factor against sliding (sfs), overturning (sfo) and exceeding bearing capacity (sfb). In order to assess the forces exerting on quay walls, to be more accurate, pore water pressure ratio, horizontal and vertical inertia forces, fluctuating and non-fluctuating components of hydraulic and soil pressure were considered. It was found that the increase of water depth in front of the quay, vertical and horizontal seismic coefficients, and pore water pressure ratio play important roles in reduction of all mentioned safety factors. Increase of specific weight of the rubble mound, backfill and foundation soil, friction angle of wall-foundation/seabed interface and wall back-face/backfill interface and friction angle of backfill soil, lead safety factors to magnify. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis was also performed using the tornado diagrams. Results of this study could give designers insights into the importance of uncertain soil and seismic factors, in order to choose geometry of the design in a way that its analysis and assessment is less relied on severely uncertain parameters and to introduce more reliable and economic quay walls.
Quay Wall,Safety Factor,seismic design,stability,Ultimate Limit-State,Uncertainty
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40506.html
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40506_45c562bfd6bb7b94e85863afc396a499.pdf
University of Tehran
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal
2322-2093
2423-6691
46
2
2013
12
01
The Effect of Dynamic Permeability on Velocity and Intrinsic Attenuation of Compressional Waves in Sand
221
231
EN
Hasan
Ghasemzadeh
Assistant Professor, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Civil Engineering Faculty, Tehran, Iran
ghasemzadeh@kntu.ac.ir
Amir
Ali
Abounouri
MSc Graduate, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Civil Engineering Faculty, Tehran, Iran
a.a.abounouri@sina.kntu.ac.ir
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.009
Stress waves contain useful information about the properties of porous materials; they can be recovered through different non-destructive testing methods such as crosswell, vertical seismic profile, borehole logging as well as sonic tests. In all these methods, it is crucial to assess the effects of frequency on wave attributes including velocity and intrinsic attenuation. The dependency of permeability on frequency which is known as dynamic permeability and its effects on wave attributes of compressional waves are investigated in the present paper. Utilizing the dispersion relation derived for compressional waves, it is shown how the velocity and intrinsic attenuation of waves propagated in water saturated sand may be influenced by dynamic permeability. In low frequency range (viscous dominated flow regime), the dynamic permeability behaves like Darcy steady-state permeability and its effects on wave attributes are negligible. However, deviations from Darcy permeability start to occur at higher frequencies. Therefore, it is important to know how dynamic permeability controls the behavior of wave velocity and intrinsic attenuation in relatively high frequencies. For example, it is demonstrated that neglecting dynamic permeability results in overestimation of velocities of fast and slow waves in high frequency ranges (inertia dominated flow regime).
Attenuation,Compressional Waves,Dynamic Permeability,Sand,Velocity
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40507.html
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40507_cdba0240b032e1d0524b93819d6ba67e.pdf
University of Tehran
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal
2322-2093
2423-6691
46
2
2013
12
01
Are There Any Differences in Seismic Performance Evaluation Criteria for Concrete Arch Dams?
233
240
EN
masood
Heshmati
K. N. Toosi University of Technology
masood_heshmati@sina.kntu.ac.ir
Mohammad Amin
Hariri Ardebili
University of Colorado ar Boulder
mohammad.haririardebili@colorado.edu
Hasan
Mirzabozorg
K. N. Toosi University of Technology
mirzabozorg@kntu.ac.ir
Seyed Mahdi
Seyed Kolbadi
K. N. Toosi University of Technology
mahdi_kolbadi@sina.kntu.ac.ir
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.010
Differences between stress-based and strain-based criteria are investigated in seismic performance evaluation of the arch dams in time domain. A numerical model of the coupled dam-reservoir-foundation system is prepared with the finite element technique. Reservoir is modeled using the Eulerian approach as a compressible domain, and the foundation rock is assumed to be massless. Dynamic equilibrium equations for the coupled system are solved using Newmark’s time integration algorithm. Seismic performance of the arch dam is evaluated according to parameters such as demand-capacity ratio, cumulative inelastic duration and overstressed (or overstrained) areas obtained from linear elastic analyses. The results show, although there are some similarities between stress-based and strain-based criteria, evaluation of the performance based on the strain gives different results which can be led to different decision making in dam safety related projects.
Arch Dam,Cumulative Inelastic Duration,Demand-Capacity Ratio,Seismic Performance Evaluation,Strain-Based Criteria
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40508.html
http://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40508_6ad354e8447599ffa90f44fa23593c22.pdf