2013
46
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Analytical Solution for TwoDimensional Coupled Thermoelastodynamics in a Cylinder
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2
An infinitely long hollow cylinder containing isotropic linear elastic material is considered under the effect of arbitrary boundary stress and thermal condition. The twodimensional coupled thermoelastodynamic PDEs are specified based on equations of motion and energy equation, which are uncoupled using Nowacki potential functions. The Laplace integral transform and BesselFourier series are used to derive the solution for the potential functions, and then the displacements, stresses and temperaturepotential relationships are used to determine the displacements, stresses and temperature fields. It is shown that the formulation presented here are identically collapsed on the solution existed in the literature for simpler case of axissymetric configuration. A numerical procedure is needed to evaluate the displacements, stresses and temperature at any point and any time. The numerical inversion method proposed by Durbin is applied to evaluate the inverse Laplace transforms of different functions involved in this paper. For numerical inversion, there exist many difficulties such as singular points in the integrand functions, infinite limit of the integral and the time step of integration. With a very precise attention, the desired functions have been numerically evaluated and shown that the boundary conditions have been satisfied very accurately. The numerical evaluations are graphically shown to make engineering sense for the problem involved in this paper for different case of boundary conditions. The results show the wave velocity and the time lack of receiving stress waves. The effect of temperature boundary conditions are shown to be somehow oscillatory, which is used in designing of such an elements.
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107
123


Morteza
EskandariGhadi
University of Tehran, Collage of Engineering, Dept. of Engineering Science
University of Tehran, Collage of Engineering,
فرانسه
ghadi@ut.ac.ir


Mohammad
Rahimian
Collage of Civil Eng., Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Collage of Civil Eng., Faculty of Engineering,
فرانسه
rahimian@ut.ac.ir


Amin
Mahmoodi
Collage of Civil Eng., Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Collage of Civil Eng., Faculty of Engineering,
فرانسه
mahmoudi.am@gmail.com


Azizollah
ArdeshirBehrestaghi
PhD candidate, Faculty of Civil Eng., Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran,
PhD candidate, Faculty of Civil Eng., Babol
فرانسه
ardeshir_b_eng@yahoo.com
BesselFourier Series
Coupled Thermoelasticity
Laplace transform
Numerical Inversion
Potential Functions
Series Expansion
Singular Points
[ Biot, M.A. (1956). “Thermoelasticity and irreversible thermodynamics”, Journal of Applied Physics, 27, 240253. ##Carlson, D.E. (1972). “Linear thermoelasticity”, In S.(ed.), Handbuch der Physik, Vol. Via/2, Mechanics of Solids II, (ed.) C. Truesdell, 1295. Springer, Berlin. ##Cohen, A.L. (2007). Numerical methods for Laplace transform inversion, Springer, New York. ##Deresiewicz, H. (1958). “Solution of the equations of thermoelasticity”, Proceedings of 3rd United States National Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Brown University, 287291. ##Dubrin, F. (1973). “Numerical inversion of laplace transform: an efficient improvement to dubner and abate’s method”, Commissariat a I’Energie Centre UService Electronique the Computer Journal, 17(4), 371376. ##Eslami, M. and Vahedi, H. (1992). “Galerkin finite element displacement formulation of coupled thermoelasticity spherical problems”, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 114, 380384 ##Gurtin, M.E. (1972). “The linear theory of elasticity”, In S.(ed.), Handbuch der Physik, Vol. Via/2, Mechanics of Solids II, (ed.) C. Truesdell, 1295. Springer, Berlin. ##Kellogg, O.D. (1953). Foundation of Potential Theory, Dover Publications Inc. ##Li, Y.Y., Ghoneim, H. and Chen, Y.A. (1983). “A numerical method in solving a coupled thermoelasticity equations and some results”, Journal of Thermal Stresses, 6, 253280. ##Lykotrafitisa, G. and Georgiadis, H.G. (2003). “The threedimensional steadystate thermoelastodynamic problem of moving sources over a half space”, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 40(4), 899940. ##Mc Quillen, E.J. and Brull, M.A. (1970). “Dynamic thermoelastic response of cylindrical shells”, Journal of applied Mechanics, 37(3), 661670. ##Nickell, R.E. and Sackman, J.L. (1968). “Approximate solution in linear coupled thermoelasticity”, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 35(2), 255266. ##Nowacki, W. (1959). “Some dynamical problem of thermoelasticity”, Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis, 11, 3946. ##Nowacki, W. (1964a). “Green functions for the thermoelastic medium”, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences  Technical Sciences, 12, 315321. ##Nowacki, W. (1964b). “Green functions for the thermoelastic medium”, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences  Technical Sciences, 12, 465472. ##Nowacki, W. (1967). “On the completeness of stress functions in thermoelasticity”, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences  Technical Sciences, 15, 583591 ##Nowacki, W. (1986). Thermoelasticity, 2nd Edition, Pergamon Press. ##Rahimian, M., EskandariGhadi, M. and Heidarpoor, A. (1999a). “Solving coupled thermoelasticity problems in cylindrical coordinates, part 1: analitical solution”, Journal of Engineering Faculty, University of Tehran, 32(1), 5156 (in Persian). ##Rahimian, M., EskandariGhadi, M. and Heidarpoor, A. (1999b). “Solving coupled thermoelasticity problems in cylindrical coordinates, part 2: numerical solution”, Journal of Engineering Faculty, University of Tehran, 32(1), 5770 (in Persian). ##Sneddon, I. N. (1951). Fourier transforms, McGrawHill, New York, N. Y. ##TeiChen, Chen and ChengI, Weng. (1989). “Coupled transient thermoelastic response in an axisymmetric circular cylinder by laplace transformfinite element method”, Computers and Structures, 33(2), 533542. ##Zorski, H. (1958). “Singular solutions for thermoelastic media”, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences  Technical Sciences, 6, 331339.##]
A Study of the Rockfill Material Behavior in LargeScale Tests
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2
Inspecting the behavior of the rockfill materials is of significant importance in analysis of rockfill dams. Since the dimensions of grains in such materials are greater than the conventional sizes suitable for soil mechanics tests, it is necessary to experimentally study them in specific largescale apparatuses. In this research, the behavior of rockfill materials in two large rockfill dams constructed in northwest of Iran were studied using largescale direct shear and triaxial tests. Various indices regarding the quantity of particle breakage in rockfill materials were assessed for both dams and an experimental correlation has been proposed between the Los Angeles Abrasion Value and internal friction angle of rockfill material. Also, the effect of surcharge intensity, grain size distribution and degree of compaction on the shear strength of rockfill material for both dams was studied. The findings indicate that increase in particle breakage leads to reduction of internal friction angle. Also, for a specific sample the particle breakage index increases with an increase in surcharge, percentage of gravel and degree of compaction.
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143


Ali
Ghanbari
Associate professor of civil engineering, Kharazmi University
Associate professor of civil engineering,
فرانسه
ghanbari@tmu.ac.ir


Amir
Hamidi
Associate professor
Kharazmi University
Associate professor
Kharazmi University
فرانسه
Hamidi@tmu.ac.ir


Naseh
Abdolahzadeh
Researcher Student, Kharazmi University
Researcher Student, Kharazmi University
فرانسه
naseh86@gmail.com
Direct Shear Test
Los Angeles Abrasion
Particle Breakage
Rockfill
Triaxial Test
[Brauns, J. and Kast, K. (1991). “Laboratory testing and quality control of rockfill german practice”, Advances in Rockfill Structures, NATO ASI Series, 195219. ##Cambridge, M. (2008). “Implications of pyritic rockfill on performance of embankment dams”, Dams and Reservoirs, 18(2), 6369. ##Charles, J.A. and Walts, K.S. (1980). “The influence of confining pressure on the shear strength of compacted rockfill”, Geotechnique, 30(4), 353367. ##Delgado Rodrigues, J. (1991). Physical characterization and assessment of rock durability through index properties, Chapter 2, Advances in Rockfill Structures, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, NATO ASI Series, 200, 733. ##Ghanbari, A., Sadeghpour, A.H., Mohamadzadeh, H. and Mohamadzadeh, M. (2008). “An experimental study on the behavior of rockfill material using large scale tests”, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 13, Bundle G. 116. ##Gupta, A. (2009). “Effect of particle size and confining pressure on breakage and strength parameters of rockfill material”, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 14, Bundle H. 112. ##Hamidi, A., Yazdanjou, V. and Salimi, S.N. (2009). “Shear strength characteristics of sandgravel mixtures”, International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 3(1), 2938. ##Hamidi, A., Salimi, S.N. and Yazdanjou, V. (2011). “Gravel particles shape and size effects on shear strength characteristics of fine sands”, Scientific Quarterly Journal of Geosciences, 20(80), 189196. ##Hazen, A. (1911). Discussion of “dams on sand foundation”, by A. C. Koenig, Transactions, American Society of Civil Engineers, 73, 199. ##Indraratna, B., Wijewardena, L.S.S. and Balasubramaniam , A.S. (1993). “Large –scale triaxial testing of greywacke rockfill”, Geotechnique, London, U.K. 43(1), 3751. ##Indraratna, B., Ionescu, and Christie, H.D. (1998). “Shear behavior of railway ballast based on large –scale triaxial tests”, ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, 124(5), 439449. ##Indraratna, B. and Salim, W. (2002). “Modelling of particle breakage of coarse aggregates incorporating strength and dilatancy”, Proceedings of the ICE  Geotechnical Engineering, 155(4), 243 –252. ##Kim, Bumjoo. (2005). “Shear strength and onedimension compression characteristics of granitic gneiss rockfill dam material”, 21(7), 31 42. ##Lade, P.V. (1996). “Significance of particle breakage in granular material”, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 122(4), 309316. ##Lee. K. and Farhoomand, I. (1967). “Compressibility and breakage of granular soil in anisotropic triaxial compression”, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, IV(1), 6886. ##Leslie, D.D. (1963). “Large scale triaxial tests on granular soils”, Proceeding of the 2nd PanAmerican Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Brazil, 1, 181202. ##Leslie, D.D. (1975). “Shear strength of rockfill. physical properties engineering study”, South Pacific Division Corps of Engineers Laboratory, 526, 124, 1975. ##Marsal, R.J. (1967). “Discussion of shear strength”, Proceedingof the 6th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 3, 310316. ##Parkin, A.K. (1991). “Rockfill modeling”, Advances in Rockfill Structures, NATO ASI Series, 3551. ##Varadarajan, A., Sharma, K.G., Venkatachalam, K. and Gupta, A.K. (2003). “Testing and modeling two rockfill material”, ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical and Geoenviromental Engineering, 129(3), 206218.##]
Safety Analysis of the Patch Load Resistance of Plate Girders: Influence of Model Error and Variability
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2
This study aims to undertake a statistical study to evaluate the accuracy of nine models that have been previously proposed for estimating the ultimate resistance of plate girders subjected to patch loading. For each model, mean errors and standard errors, as well as the probability of underestimating or overestimating patch load resistance, are estimated and the resultant values are compared one to another. Prior to that, the models are initially calibrated in order to improve interaction formulae using an experimental data set collected from the literature. The models are then analyzed by computing design factors associated with a target risk level (probability of exceedance). These models are compared one to another considering uncertainties existed in material and geometrical properties. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate random variables. The statistical parameters of the calibrated models are calculated for various coefficients of variations regardless of their correlation with the random resistance variables. These probabilistic results are very useful for evaluating the stochastic sensitivity of the calibrated models.
1

145
160


Farzad
Shahabian
Academic staff
Academic staff
فرانسه
fshahabianm@yahoo.com


Sidi Mohammed
Elachachi
academic staff
academic staff
چزیره کریسمس
sidimohammed.elachachi@ ubordeaux1.fr


Denys
Breysse
Academic staff
Academic staff
چزیره کریسمس
denis.breysse@ ubordeaux1.fr
calibration
Monte Carlo
Patch Loading
Plate Girder
Uncertainty
[Chacón, R., Bock, M. and Real, E. (2011). "Longitudinally stiffened hybrid steel plate girders subjected to patch loading", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67(9), 13101324. ##Chacón, R., Mirambell, E. and Real, E. (2010). "Hybrid steel plate girders subjected to patch loading, part 1: numerical study", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 66(5), 695708. ##Chacón, R., Mirambell, E. and Real, E. (2013). "Transversally stiffened plate girders subjected to patch loading. part 1. preliminary study", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 80, 483491. ##Chaves, I.A., Beck, A.T. and Malite, M. (2010). "Reliabilitybased evaluation of design guidelines for coldformed steelconcrete composite beams", Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 32, 442449. ##Davaine, L. and Aribert, J. (2005). "Launching of steel girder bridge  patch load resistance of longitudinally stiffened webs", Proceedings of 4th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures, Maastricht, The Netherlands, June 810. ##Der Kiureghian, A. And Ditlevsen, O. (2009). "Aleatory or epistemic? does it matter?", Structural Safety, 31(2), 105117. ##Graciano, C. and Casanova, E. (2005). "Ultimate strength of longitudinally stiffened igirder webs subjected to combined patch loading and bending", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 61(1), 93111. ##Gracino, C., Casanova, E. and Martinez, J. (2011). "Imperfection sensitivity of plate girder webs subjected to patch loading", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67(7), 11281133. ##Graciano, C. and Johansson, B. (2003). "Resistance of longitudinally stiffened igirders subjected to to concentrated loads", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 59(5), 561586. ##JCSS. (20012). Probabilistic Model Code. Part 3: Resistance Models, Structural Steel, 3.02, http://www.jcss.byg.dtu.dk/Publications/Probabilistic_Model_Code. ##Kala, Z. (2005). "Sensitivity analysis of the stability problems of thinwalled structures", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 61(3), 415422. ##Kala, Z. and Kala, J. (2010). "Resistance of thinwalled plate girders under combines bending and shear", WSEAS Transactions on Applied and Theoretical Mechanics, 4(5), 242252. ##Kuhlmann, U., Mirambell, E., Chacón, R. and Braun, B. (2012). "Statistical evaluation of the new resistance model for steel plate girders subjected to patch loading", Steel Construction Steel Construction, 5(1), 1015. ##Kutmanova, I. and Skaloud, M. (1992). "Ultimate limit state of slender steel webs subject to (i) constant an (ii) repeated partial edge loading", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 21(13), 147162. ##Lagerqvist, O. and Johansson, B. (1996). "Resistance of igirders to concentrated loads", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 39(2), 87119. ##Liu, H. And Chen, W. (2004). "Probabilistic sensitivity analysis methods for design under uncertainty", 10th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, Albany, New York, 3031Aug, 14. ##Markovic, N. and Hajdin, N. (1992). "A contribution to the analysis of the behavior of plate girders subjected to patch loading", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 21(13), 163173. ##McCabe, M.F., Franks, S.W. and Kalma, J.D. (2005). "Calibration of a land surface model using multiple data sets", Journal of Hydrology, 302(14), 209222. ##Paola, M.D. (2004). "Probabilistic analysis of truss structures with uncertain parameters (virtual distortion method approach)", Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 19(4), 321329. ##Radlinska, A., Pease, B. and Weiss, J. (2007). "A preliminary numerical investigation on the influence of material variability in the earlyage cracking behavior of restrained concrete", Materials and Structures, 40(4), 375–386. ##Rattanapitikon, W. (2007). "Calibration and modification of energy dissipation models for irregular wave breaking", Ocean Engineering, 34(11), 15921601. ##Roberts, T.M. and Newark, A.C.B. (1997). "Strength of webs subjected to compressive edge loading", Journal of Structural Engineering, 123(2), 176183. ##Roberts, T.M. and Rockey, K.C. (1979). "A mechanism solution for predicting the collapse loads of slender plate girders when subjected to inplane loading", Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 2(67), 155175. ##Roberts, T.M. and Shahabian, F. (2000). "Ultimate resistance of slender web panels to combined bending shear and patch loading", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 57(7), 779790. ##]
Predicting Deficient Condition Performance of Water Distribution Networks
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2
A water distribution network is subjected to various abnormal conditions such as pipe breaks, pump failures, excessive demands etc. in the design period. Under such conditions, the network may not be able to meet required demands at desired pressures, and becomes deficient. Traditional network analysis assumes nodal demands to be satisfied and available nodal pressures are calculated. However, assumption that demands are satisfied at all nodes is not true under deficient conditions. Therefore, under deficient conditions nodal demands and pressures are considered simultaneously through headflow relationships to calculate available nodal flows. This type of analysis that determines available flows is termed as node flow analysis or pressuredriven or dependent wherein, outflows are considered as function of available pressure. Various node headflow relationships (NHFR) have been suggested by researchers to correlate available flow and available pressure based on required flow and required pressure. Methods using these NHFRs have been classified herein as direct and indirect approaches. Applications of these approaches have been shown with two illustrative examples and results are compared.
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161
173


Rajesh
Gupta
B.E. (Civil), M. Tech. (Env.), Ph.D.
B.E. (Civil), M. Tech. (Env.), Ph.D.
فیجی
drrajeshgupta123@hotmail.com


Mohd Abbas
Abdy Sayyed
B.E. (Civil), M. Tech (Env.)
B.E. (Civil), M. Tech (Env.)
فیجی
abbas_vnit@yahoo.co.in
Node Flow Analysis
PressureDependent Analysis
Water distribution networks
[Ang, W.K. and Jowitt, P.W. (2006). “Solution for water distribution systems under pressuredeficient conditions”, J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 132(3), 175182. ##Bhave, P.R. (1981). "Node flow analysis of water distribution systems", J. Transportation Engineering, ASCE, 107(4), 457467. ##Bhave, P.R. (1985). "Rapid convergence in hardy cross method of network analysis", J. Indian Water Works Association, 16(1), 15. ##Bhave, P.R. (1991). Analysis of flow in water distribution networks, Technomic Pub. Co., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA ##Bhave, P.R. (2003). Optimal design of water distribution networks, Alpha Science International Ltd., Pangbourne, England. ##Bhave, P.R. and Gupta, R. (2006). Analysis of Water Distribution Networks, Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India. ##Chandapillai, J. (1991). “Realistic simulation of water distribution systems”, J. Transportation Engineering, ASCE, 117(2), 258263. ##Fujiwara, O. and Ganesharajah, T. (1993). "Reliability assessment of water supply systems with storage and distribution networks", J. Water Resources Research, 29(8), 29172924. ##Fujiwara, O. and Li, J. (1988). "Reliability analysis of water distribution networks in consideration of equity, redistribution, and pressure dependent demand", J. Water Resources Research, 34(7), 18431850. ##Germanopoulos, G. (1985). “A technical note on the inclusion of pressure dependent demand and leakage terms in water supply network models”, Civil Engineering Systems, 2(3), 171179. ##GiustolisiO. and Laucelli D. (2011). “Water distribution network pressuredriven analysis using the enhanced global gradient algorithm (EGGA)”, J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 137(6), 498510. ##Gupta, R. and Bhave, P.R. (1994). "Reliability analysis of water distribution systems", J. Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 120(2), 447460. ##Gupta, R. and Bhave, P.R. (1996a). "Reliabilitybased design of water distribution systems", J. Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 122(1), 5154. ##Gupta, R. and Bhave, P.R. (1996b). “Comparison of methods for predicting deficient network performance", J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 122(3), 214217. ##Gupta, R. and Bhave, P. R. (2004). “Comments on ‘redundancy model for water distribution systems’ by P. Kalungi and T.T. Tanyimboh”, Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 86(3), 331333. ##Gupta, R. and Bhave, P.R. (2004). “Redundancybased strengthening and expansion of water distribution networks”, Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Hydroinformatics, Singapore. ##Gupta, R., Awale, A., Markam, A. and Bhave, P.R. (2005). “Node flow analysis of water distribution networks using gradient method”, Proceedings of National Conference on Advances in Water Engineering for Sustainable Development, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 207214. ##Jinesh Babu, K.S. and Mohan S. (2012). “Extended period simulation for pressuredeficient water distribution network”, J. Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 26(4), 498505. ##Kalungi, P. and Tanyimboh T.T. (2003). “Redundancy model for water distribution systems”, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 82(3), 275286. ##Ozger, S.S. and Mays, L.W. (2003). “A semipressuredriven approach to reliability assessment of water distribution networks”, Proceedings of 30th IAHR World Congress, Thessaloniki, 345352. ##Rossman, L.A. (2000). EPANET user’s manual, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati. ##Tabesh, M., Tanyimboh, T.T. and Burrows, R. (2002). “Headdriven simulation of water supply networks”, International J. Engineering, 15(1), 1122. ##Tahar, B., Tanyimboh, T.T. and Templeman, A.B. (2002). “Pressuredependent modelling of water distribution systems”, Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Decision Making in Urban and Civil Engineering, London. ##Todini, E. (2003). “A more realistic approach to the extended period simulation of water distribution networks”, Advances in Water Supply Management, Maksimovic, C., Butler, D. and Memon, F.A. (Eds.), Swets and Zeitlinger Publishers, Balkema, Lisse, The Netherlands, 173184. ##Wagner, J.M., Shamir, U. and Marks, D.H. (1988). “Water distribution reliability: simulation method”, J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 114(3), 276294. ##Wu, Z.Y., Wang, R.H., Walski, T.M., Yang, S.Y., Bowdler, D. and Baggett, C.C. (2009). “Extended globalgradient algorithm for pressuredependent water distribution analysis”, J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 135(1), 1322. ##]
Seismic Behavior Evaluation of Concrete Elevated Water Tanks
2
2
Elevated tanks are important structures in storing vital products, such as petroleum products for cities and industrial facilities, as well as water storage. These structures have various types and are constructed in a way that a greater portion of their weight is concentrated at an elevation much about the base. Damage to these structures during strong ground motions may lead to fire or other hazardous events. In this research, a reinforced concrete elevated water tank, with 900 cubic meters capacity, exposed to three pairs of earthquake records was analyzed in time history using mechanical and finiteelement modeling techniques. The liquid mass of the tank was modeled as lumped mass known as sloshing mass, or impulsive mass. The corresponding stiffness constants associated with the lumped mass were determined depending upon the properties of the tank wall and liquid mass. Tank responses including base shear, overturning moment, tank displacement, and sloshing displacement were also calculated. Obtained results revealed that the system responses are highly influenced by the structural parameters and the earthquake characteristics such as frequency content.
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175
188


saeed
bozorgmehrnia
faculty of engineering, guilan university
faculty of engineering, guilan university
فرانسه
bozorgmehr@semnan.ac.ir


malek mohammad
ranjbar
faculty of engineering, guilan university
faculty of engineering, guilan university
فرانسه
mmranjbar@gmail.com


rahmat
madandoust
faculty of engineering, guilan university
faculty of engineering, guilan university
فرانسه
rmadandoust@guilan.ac.ir
Base Shear
Earthquake Characteristics
FluidStructure Interaction
Overturning Moment
Seismic Behavior
Sloshing Displacement
[Barton, D.C. and Parker, J.V. (1987). “Finite element analysis of the seismic response of anchored and unanchored liquid storage tanks”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 15, 299 –322. ##Dogangun, A. and Livaoglu, R. (2004). “Hydrodynamic pressures acting on the walls of rectangular fluid containers”, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 17, 203–214. ##Dogangun, A., Durmus, A. and Ayvaz, Y. (1996). “Finite element analysis of seismic response of rectangular tanks using added mass and lagrangian approach”, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Civil Engineering Computer Applications Research and Practice, Bahrain, April 6–8, I, 371–379. ##Dogangun, A., Durmus, A. and Ayvaz, Y. (1996). “Static and dynamic analysis of rectangular tanks by using the lagrangian fluid finite element”, Computers and Structures, 59, 547–552. ##Donea, J., Gıuliani, S. and Halleux, J.P. (1982). “An arbitrary lagrangian–eulerian finite element method for transient dynamic fluidstructure interaction”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 33, 689–723. ##Dutta, S.C., Jain, S.K. and Murty, C.V.R. (2000). “Assessing the seismic torsional vulnerability of elevated tanks with rc frametype staging”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 19, 183–197. ##Dutta, S., Mandal, A. and Dutta, S.C. (2004). “Soil–structure interaction in dynamic behavior of elevated tanks with alternate frame staging configurations”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 227(45), 825853. ##Dutta, S.C., Jain, S.K. and Murty, C.V.R. (2001). “Inelastic seismic torsional behavior of elevated tanks”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 242(1), 151–167. ##Dutta, S.C., Jain, S.K. and Murty, C.V.R. (2000). “Alternate tank staging configurations with reduced torsional vulnerability”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 19, 199–215. ##Haroun, M.A. and Termaz, M.K. (1992). “Effects of soilstructure interaction effects on seismic response of elevated tanks”, Soil Dynamics Earthquake Engineering, 11(2), 3786. ##Housner, G.W. (1963). “Dynamic behavior of water tanks”, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of the America, 53, 381–387. ##Kwak, H.G. and Filippou, F.C. (1990). “Finite element analysis of reinforced concrete structures under monotonic loads”, Report No. UCB/SEMM90/14, University of California at Berkeley, CA. ##Livaoglu, R. (2005). “Investigation of the earthquake behavior of elevated tanks considering fluid–structure–soil interactions”, Ph.D. Thesis, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, (in Turkish). ##Livaoglu, R. and Dogangun, A. (2005). “Seismic evaluation of fluidelevated tankfoundation/soil systems in frequency domain”, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 21, 101–119. ##Livaoglu, R. and Dogangun, A. (2006). “Simplified seismic analysis procedures for elevated tanks considering fluidstructuresoil interaction”, J. Fluids Structure, 22(3), 421–39. ##Livaoglu, R. and Dogangun, A. (2007) “Effect of foundation embedment on seismic behavior of elevated tanks considering fluid–structuresoil interaction”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 27, 855–863. ##Malhotra, P.K., Wenk, T. and Weiland, M. (2000). “Simple procedure of seismic analysis of liquidstorage tanks”, Journal of Structural Engineering International, IABSE 10 (3), 197–201. ##Marashi, E.S. and Shakib, H. (1997). “Evaluations of dynamic characteristics of elevated water tanks by ambient vibration tests”, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Civil Engineering, Tehran, Iran, I, 367–73. ##Minowa, C. (1980). “Dynamic analysis for rectangular water tanks”, Recent Advanced Lifeline Earthquake Engineering, Japan, 7, 135–142. ##Olson, L.G. and Bathe, K.J. (1983). “A study of displacementbased fluid finite elements for calculating frequencies of fluid and fluid–structure systems”, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 76, 137–151. ##Park, R., Kent, D.C. and Sampton, R.A. (1972). “Reinforced concrete members with cyclic loading”, Journal of the Structural Division ASCE., 98(7), 1341–60. ##Reshidat, R.M. and Sunna, H. (1986). “Behavior of elevated storage tanks during earthquake”, Proceeding of the 3rd US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Charleston, South Carolina, 4, 21432154. ##RezaieePajand, M. and Moghaddasie, B. (2013). “Determination of stability domains for nonlinear dynamical systems using the weighted residuals method”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 46(1), 27–50. ##Scott, B.D., Park, R. and Priestley, M.J.N. (1982). “Stressstrain behavior of concrete confined by overlapping hoops at low and high strain rates”, American Concrete Institute (ACI), 79(1), 13–27. ##Wilson, E.L. and Khalvati, M. (1983). “Finite elements for the dynamic analysis of fluidsolid systems”, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 19, 1657–1668. ##Zienkiewicz, O.C. and Bettes, P. (1978). “Fluidstructure dynamic interaction and wave forces; an introduction to numerical treatment”, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 13, 1–16.##]
Numerical Simulation of Free Surface in the Case of Plane Turbulent Wall Jets in Shallow Tailwater
2
2
Walljet flow is an important flow field in hydraulic engineering, and its applications include flow from the bottom outlet of dams and sluice gates. In this paper, the plane turbulent wall jet in shallow tailwater is simulated by solving the Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes equations using the standard turbulence closure model. This study aims to explore the ability of a time splitting method on a nonstaggered grid in curvilinear coordinates for simulation of twodimensional (2D) plane turbulent wall jets with finite tailwater depth. In the developed model, the kinematic freesurface boundary condition is solved simultaneously with the momentum and continuity equations, so that the water surface elevation can be obtained along with the velocity and pressure fields as part of the solution. 2D simulations are carried out for plane turbulent wall jets free surface in shallow tailwater. The comparison undertaken between numerical results and experimental measurements show that the numerical model can capture the velocity field and the drop in the water surface elevation at the gate with reasonable accuracy.
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mitra
javan
1 School of Civil Engineering
The University of Razi
Kermanshah, Tagh Bostan
IRAN
1 School of Civil Engineering
The University
فرانسه
javanmi@gmail.com


afshin
Eghbalzadeh
School of Civil Engineering
The University of Razi
Kermanshah, Tagh Bostan
IRAN
School of Civil Engineering
The University
فرانسه
afeghbal@razi.ac.ir


Masoud
Montazeri Namin
School of Civil Engineering
The University of Tehran
Tehran, 16 Azar St., Enghelab Ave.
IRAN
School of Civil Engineering
The University
فرانسه
mnamin@ut.ac.ir
numerical simulation
Free Surface
Shallow Tailwater
Turbulent Flow
Water Jets
[Albertson, M.L., Dai, Y.B., Jenson, R.A. and Rouse, H. (1950). “Diffusion of submerged jets”, Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineer, 115, 639–664. ##Ead, S.A. and Rajaratnam, N. (1998). “Doubleleaf gate for energy dissipation below regulators”, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 124(11), 1134–1145. ##Ead, S.A. and Rajaratnam, N. (2001). “Plane turbulent surface jets in shallow tailwater”, Journal of Fluids Engineering, 123, 121–127. ##Ead, S.A. and Rajaratnam, N. (2002). “Plane turbulent wall jets in shallow tailwater”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 128(2), 143155. ##Eriksson, J.G., Karlsson, R.I. and Persson, J. (1998). “An experimental study of a twodimensional plane turbulent wall jet”, Experiments in Fluids, 25(1), 50–60. ##Goldschmidt, V. and Eskinazi, S. (1966). “Two phase turbulent flow in a plane jet”, Transactions ASME, Series E, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 33(4), 735–747. ##Heskestad, G. (1965). “Hot wire measurements in a plane turbulent jet”, Transactions ASME, Series E, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 32(4), 721–734. ##Javan, M., Montazeri Namin, M. and Salehi Neyshabouri, S.A.A. (2007). “A timesplitting method on a nonstaggered grid in curvilinear coordinates for implicit simulation of nonhydrostatic freesurface flows”, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 34(1), 99106. ##Kechiche, K., Mhiri, H., Palec, G.L. and Philippe, B. (2004) “Application of low reynolds number turbulence models to the study of turbulent wall jets”, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 43, 201–211. ##Khosronejad, A. and Rennie, C.D. (2010). “Threedimensional numerical modeling of unconfined and confined walljet flow with two different turbulence models”, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 37(4), 576–587. ##Kim, J. and Moin, P. (1985). “Application of a fractionalstep method to incompressible navierstokes equations”, Journal of Computational Physics, 59, 308323. ##Kotsovinos, N.E. (1975). “A study of the entrainment and turbulence in a plane turbulent jet”, California Institute of Technology, Rep. KH R32, W. M. Keck Laboratory of Hydrology and Water Resources, Pasadena, California. ##Launder, B.E. and Rodi, W. (1981). “The turbulent wall jet”, Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 19, 81–128. ##Miller, D.R. and Comings, E.W. (1957). “Static pressure distribution in the free turbulent jet”, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 3(1), 1–16. ##Montazeri Namin, M., Lin, B. and Falconer, R.A. (2001). “An implicit numerical algorithm for solving nonhydrostatic freesurface flow problems”, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Fluids, 35, 341356. ##Rajaratnam, N. (1976). Turbulent jets, Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 304p. ##Rhie, C.M. and Chow, W.L. (1983). “Numerical study of the turbulent flow past an airfoil with trailing edge separation”, AIAA Journal, 21, 15251532. ##Rodi, W. (1993). Turbulence models and their applications in hydraulics  A stateofarts review, IAHR Monograph, Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ##Shojaeefard, M.H., Goudarzi, K. and Jahromi, H.G. (2007) “Numerical simulation of 2D turbidity currents and wall jet”, American Journal of Applied Sciences, 4(11), 880886. ##Swean, T.F.Jr., Ramberg, S.E., Plesniak, M.W. and Stewart, M.B. (1989). “Turbulent surface jet in channel of limited depth”, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 115(12), 1587–1606. ##Wu, S. and Rajaratnam, N. (1995). “Free jumps, submerged jumps and wall jets”, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 33(2), 197–212. ##Wu, W., Rodi, W. and Wenka, T. (2000). “3D numerical modelling of flow and sediment transport in open channels”, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 126(1), 4–15. ##]
Effect of Crest Roughness on Flow Characteristics over Circular Weirs
2
2
Different construction materials with different roughness used to make circular weirs highly affect surface roughness and, in turn, flow hydraulics passing over these structures. In the present research, numerous experiments under different hydraulic conditions were performed on a physical model to study the effects of roughness on flow hydraulics over a circular weir. The flow hydraulics included velocity profile, discharge coefficient and longitudinal water surface profile. The actual water surface elevation and velocity profile at different cross sections were measured using a point gauge and micro current meter, respectively. About 200 experimental tests were performed on a circular weir made of polyethylene with 29.5 cm height, 30cm wide, and 7.5 cm radius. The results showed that for a constant discharge, as the weir surface roughness increases the upstream water level over the weir increases and the discharge coefficient reduces. The velocity profile at upstream sections of the weir crest is extremely different from that over the weir crest while the velocity profile at downstream sections of the weir crest follows the same pattern as those experienced at the weir crest. Also, the increased roughness makes the velocity profile over the weir more uniform, with a higher average velocity. Finally the effects of roughness on velocity values are less near weir in comparison with water surface.
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207


Rasoul
Ghobadian
Hydraulic Structures
Hydraulic Structures
فرانسه
rsghobadian@gmail.com


Ali
Fattahi
Water Resource Engineering
Water Resource Engineering
فرانسه
Ali.fattahi.ch@gmail.com


Milad
Farmanifard
Young Researchers Club, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University
Young Researchers Club, Kermanshah Branch,
فرانسه
Milad.farmanifard@gmail.com


Arash
Ahmadi
Water Civil Engineering
Water Civil Engineering
فرانسه
Arash.ahmadi229@yahoo.com
discharge coefficient
Experimental Test
Relative Roughness
Velocity profile
[Bazin, H. (1898). “Recent experiments on the flow of water over weirs”, Mémoireset Documents, Annales des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris, France, Sér. 7, 15, 2nd Sem, 151264. ##Chanson, H. and Montes, J.S. (1998). “Overflow characteristics of circular weir: effect of inflow conditions”, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE, 124(3), 152162. ##Creager, W.P. (1917). Engineering of masonry dams, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA. ##Escande, L. and Sananes, F. (1959). “Etudes des Seuils Déversants à Fente Aspiratrice. ('Weirs with suction slots.')”, Journal La Houille Blanche, Dec., No. Special B, 892902 (in French). ##Esmaili, K., Naghavi, B., KouroshVahid, F. and Yazdi, J. (2010). “Experimental and numerical modeling of flow pattern on circular weir”, Journal of Water and Soil, 24(1), 166179. ##Fawer, C. (1937). “Etude de quelques ecoulements permanents a filets courbes (Study of some steady flows with curved streamlines)”, Thesis, Lausanne, Switzerland, Imprimerie La Concorde (in French). ##Heidarpour, M., Afzalimehr, H. and Khorami, E. (2002). “Applied of flow function around cylindrical weir crest”, Journal of Technical and Natural Resource, 6(3), 5161. ##Heidarpour, M., Chamani, M.R. and Khorami, E. (2006). “Characteristics of circularcrested and cylindrical weirs”, Journal of Agriculture Science and Natural Resource, 12(6), 2130 ##Othman, Kh.I., Tahsen, A.Ch. and Ibrahim, A.I.AlH. (2010). “Effect of size and surface roughness of cylindrical weirs on overflow characteristics”, AlRafidian Engineering Journal, 19(2), 7789. ##Ramamurthy, A.S. and VO, N.D. (1993). “Characteristics of circular crested weir”, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. ASCE, 119(9), 10551063. ##Raupach, M.R., Antonia, R.A. and Rajagopalan, S. (1991). “Roughwall turbulent boundary layers”, Applied Mechanics Reviews, 44(1), 125 ##Rehbok, T. (1929). “The river hydraulic laboratory of the Technical University of Karlsruhe, hydraulic laboratory practice”, ASME, New York, N.Y, 111242. ##Rouve, G. and Indlekofer, H. (1974). “Discharge over Straight Weirs with Semi cylindrical Crest”, Der Bauinge nieur, 49(7), 250256, (in Germany). ##Sarginson, E.J. (1972). “The influence of surface tension on weir flow”, Hydraulic Research Delft, The Netherlands, 10(4), 431446. ##Tahmassebii, S. (2010). “Experimental Study of effect of weir crest roughness on separation region in broad crested weir”, MSc. Thesis, University of Shahid Chamran, Ahvaz, Iran.##]
Probabilistic Assessment of PseudoStatic Design of GravityType Quay Walls
2
2
Failure of the quay walls due to earthquakes results in severe economic loss. Because of hazards threatening such inexpensive nodes of national and international transportation networks, seismic design of quay walls is still an evolving topic in marine structural engineering. This study investigates the sensitivity of the gravitytype quay wall stability respect to uncertain soil and seismic properties using ultimate limitsate pseudostatic design process. Stability is defined in terms of safety factor against sliding (sfs), overturning (sfo) and exceeding bearing capacity (sfb). In order to assess the forces exerting on quay walls, to be more accurate, pore water pressure ratio, horizontal and vertical inertia forces, fluctuating and nonfluctuating components of hydraulic and soil pressure were considered. It was found that the increase of water depth in front of the quay, vertical and horizontal seismic coefficients, and pore water pressure ratio play important roles in reduction of all mentioned safety factors. Increase of specific weight of the rubble mound, backfill and foundation soil, friction angle of wallfoundation/seabed interface and wall backface/backfill interface and friction angle of backfill soil, lead safety factors to magnify. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis was also performed using the tornado diagrams. Results of this study could give designers insights into the importance of uncertain soil and seismic factors, in order to choose geometry of the design in a way that its analysis and assessment is less relied on severely uncertain parameters and to introduce more reliable and economic quay walls.
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209
219


Mohammad Ali
LotfollahiYaghin
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University
فرانسه
lotfollahi@tabrizu.ac.ir


Mastoureh
Gholipour Salimi
Faculty of civil Engineering, university of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Faculty of civil Engineering, university
فرانسه
salimi_iust@yahoo.com


Hamid
Ahmadi
Faculty of civil Engineering, university of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Faculty of civil Engineering, university
فرانسه
HAhmadi@tabrizu.ac.ir
Quay Wall
Safety Factor
seismic design
stability
Ultimate LimitState
Uncertainty
[Alyami, M., Rouainia, M. and Wilkinson, S.M. (2009). “Numerical analysis of deformation behavior of quay walls under earthquake loading”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29, 525536. ##Alyami, M., Wilkinson, S.M., Rouainia, M. and Cai, F. (2007). “Simulation of seismic behavior of gravity quay wall using a generalized plasticity model”, The 4th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Paper No. 1734, Thessaloniki, Greece, 2528 June. ##Bowles, E.J. (1996). Foundation analysis and design, 5th Edition, MCGrawHill, Inc. ##Chen, C.H. (2000). “Preliminary analysis for quay wall movement in Taichung Harbour during the September 21, 1999, ChiChi earthquake”, Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology, 2(1), 4354. ##Choudhury, D. and Ahmad, S.M. (2007). “Stability of waterfront retaining wall subjected to pseudostatic earthquake forces”, Ocean Engineering, 34, 19471954. ##Choudhury, D. and Ahmad, S.M. (2008). “Stability of waterfront retaining wall subjected to pseudodynamic earthquake forces”, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, 134(4), 252260. ##Ebeling, R.M. and Morrison Jr., E.E. (1992). “The seismic design of waterfront retaining structures”, US Army Technical Report ITL9211, Washington, DC. ##Iai, S., Ichii, K., Liu, H. and Morita, T. (1995). “Effective stress analyses of port structures”, Soils and Foundations, Special Issue on Geotechnical Aspects of the January 17, Japanese Society, HyogokenNambu Earthquake, 2, 97114. ##Jones A.L., Kramer S.L. and Arduino, P. (2002). “Estimation of uncertainty in geotechnical properties for performancebased earthquake engineering”, Report 2002/16, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley. ##Kim, S.R., Jang, I.S., Chung, C.K. and Kim, M.M. (2005). “Evaluation of seismic displacements of quay walls”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 25, 451–459. ##Kim, S.R., Kwon, S.O. and Kim, M.M. (2004). “Evaluation of force components acting on gravity type quay walls during earthquakes”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 24, 835866. ##Kramer, S.L. (1996). Geotechnical earthquake engineering, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ##Kramer, S.L. and Elgamal, A.W. (2001). “Modeling soil liquefaction hazards for performance based earthquake engineering”, Report 2001/13, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley. ##Lee, T.H. and Mosalam, K.M. (2006). “Probabilistic seismic evaluation of reinforced concrete structural components and systems”, Report 2006/04, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley. ##Mylonakis, G., Kloukinas, P. and Papantonopoulos, C. (2007). “An alternative to the Mononnobe Okabe equations for seismic earth pressures”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 27, 957969. ##Porter K.A. and Beck J.L. (2002). “Shaikhutdinov RV. Sensitivity of building loss estimates to major uncertain variables”, Earthquake Spectra, 18(4), 719–43. ##Quinn, A.D. (1972). Design and construction of ports and marine structures, New York: McGrawHill, Inc. ##Seed, H. and Whitman, R. (1970). “Design of earth retaining structures for dynamic loads”, ASCE Specialty Conference on Lateral Stresses in the Ground and Design of Earth Retaining Structures, Ithaca, N.Y., 103147. ##International Navigation Association, Working Group No. 34 of the Maritime Navigation Commission. (2001). PIANC, Seismic design guidelines for port structures, A.A. Balkema Publishers / Lisse / Abingdon / Exton (PA) / Tokyo. ##Sowers, G.F. (1993). “Human factors in civil and geotechnical engineering failures”, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 119(2), 238256. ##Werner, S.D. (1998). “Seismic guidelines for ports”, Monograph No.12, New York, ASCE, Chapter 2. ##Zangar, C.N. (1953). “Hydrodynamic pressures on dams due to horizontal earthquakes”, Proceedings of Experimental Stress Analysis, 10(2), 93102. ##]
The Effect of Dynamic Permeability on Velocity and Intrinsic Attenuation of Compressional Waves in Sand
2
2
Stress waves contain useful information about the properties of porous materials; they can be recovered through different nondestructive testing methods such as crosswell, vertical seismic profile, borehole logging as well as sonic tests. In all these methods, it is crucial to assess the effects of frequency on wave attributes including velocity and intrinsic attenuation. The dependency of permeability on frequency which is known as dynamic permeability and its effects on wave attributes of compressional waves are investigated in the present paper. Utilizing the dispersion relation derived for compressional waves, it is shown how the velocity and intrinsic attenuation of waves propagated in water saturated sand may be influenced by dynamic permeability. In low frequency range (viscous dominated flow regime), the dynamic permeability behaves like Darcy steadystate permeability and its effects on wave attributes are negligible. However, deviations from Darcy permeability start to occur at higher frequencies. Therefore, it is important to know how dynamic permeability controls the behavior of wave velocity and intrinsic attenuation in relatively high frequencies. For example, it is demonstrated that neglecting dynamic permeability results in overestimation of velocities of fast and slow waves in high frequency ranges (inertia dominated flow regime).
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221
231


Hasan
Ghasemzadeh
Assistant Professor, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Civil Engineering Faculty, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor, K.N. Toosi University
فرانسه
ghasemzadeh@kntu.ac.ir


Amir
Abounouri
MSc Graduate, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Civil Engineering Faculty, Tehran, Iran
MSc Graduate, K.N. Toosi University of Technology,
فرانسه
a.a.abounouri@sina.kntu.ac.ir
Attenuation
Compressional Waves
Dynamic Permeability
Sand
Velocity
[Allard, J., Henry, M., Tizianel, J., Kelders, L. and Lauriks, W. (1998). “Sound propagation in air saturated random packings of beads”, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 104, 2004–2007. ##Berryman, J.G. (1980). “Confirmation of Biot's theory”, Applied Physics Letter, 37(4), 382384. ##Biot, M.A. (1956a). “Theory of Propagation of Elastic Waves in FluidSaturated Porous Solid: Low Frequency Range”, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 28, 168–178. ##Biot, M.A. (1956b). “Theory of Propagation of Elastic Waves in FluidSaturated Porous Solid: Higher frequency range”, Journal of Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 28, 179–191. ##Chapman, A. and Higdon, J. (1992). “Oscillatory stokes flow in periodic porous media”, Physics of Fluids, 4(10), 2099–2116. ##Charlaix, E., Kushnick, A. and Stokes, J. (1988). “Experimental study of dynamic permeability in porous media”, Physical Review Letters, 61, 1595–1598. ##Ghasemzadeh, H. and Abounouri, A.A. (2012). “Effect of subsurface hydrological properties on velocity and attenuation of compressional and shear wave in fluidsaturated viscoelastic porous media”, Journal of Hydrology, 460–461, 110–116. ##Iversen, N. and Jørgensen, B.B. (1993). “Diffusion coefficients of sulfate and methane in marine sediments: Influence of porosity”, Geochimica et Cosmochimica, 57, 571–578. ##Johnson, D.L., Hemmick, D. and Kojima, H. (1994). “Probing porous media with first and second sound. i. dynamic permeability”, Journal of Applied Physics, 76, 104–114. ##Johnson, D.L., Koplik, J. and Dashen, R. (1987). “Theory of Dynamic Permeability and Tortuosity in Fluid–Saturated Porous–Media”, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 176, 379–402. ##Kim, S.H., Kim, K.J. and Blouin, S.E. (2002). “Analysis of wave propagation in saturated porous media. I. Theoretical solution”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 191, 4061–4073. ##Lo, W.C., Sposito, G. and Majer, E. (2006). “Lowfrequency dilatational wave propagation through fullysaturated poroelastic media”, Advances in Water Resources, 29, 408–416. ##Lo, W.C., Yeh, C.L. and Jan, C.D. (2008). “Effect of soil texture and excitation frequency on the propagation and attenuation of acoustic waves at saturated conditions”, Journal of Hydrology, 357, 270–281. ##Sheng, P. and Zhou, M.Y. (1988). “Dynamic permeability in porous medium”, Physical Review Letters, 61, 1591–1594. ##Smeulders, D.M.J. (1992). “On Wave Propagation in Saturated and Partially Saturated Porous Media”, PhD Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology. ##Theodorakopoulos, D.D. and Beskos, D.E. (2006). “Application of Biot’s Poroelasticity to Some Soil Dynamics Problems in Civil Engineering”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 26, 666–679. ##Verruijt, A. (2010). An Introduction to Soil Dynamics, Springer, New York. ##]
Are There Any Differences in Seismic Performance Evaluation Criteria for Concrete Arch Dams?
2
2
Differences between stressbased and strainbased criteria are investigated in seismic performance evaluation of the arch dams in time domain. A numerical model of the coupled damreservoirfoundation system is prepared with the finite element technique. Reservoir is modeled using the Eulerian approach as a compressible domain, and the foundation rock is assumed to be massless. Dynamic equilibrium equations for the coupled system are solved using Newmark’s time integration algorithm. Seismic performance of the arch dam is evaluated according to parameters such as demandcapacity ratio, cumulative inelastic duration and overstressed (or overstrained) areas obtained from linear elastic analyses. The results show, although there are some similarities between stressbased and strainbased criteria, evaluation of the performance based on the strain gives different results which can be led to different decision making in dam safety related projects.
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233
240


masood
Heshmati
K. N. Toosi University of Technology
K. N. Toosi University of Technology
فرانسه
masood_heshmati@sina.kntu.ac.ir


Mohammad Amin
Hariri Ardebili
University of Colorado ar Boulder
University of Colorado ar Boulder
اسپانیا
mohammad.haririardebili@colorado.edu


Hasan
Mirzabozorg
K. N. Toosi University of Technology
K. N. Toosi University of Technology
فرانسه
mirzabozorg@kntu.ac.ir


Seyed Mahdi
Seyed Kolbadi
K. N. Toosi University of Technology
K. N. Toosi University of Technology
فرانسه
mahdi_kolbadi@sina.kntu.ac.ir
Arch Dam
Cumulative Inelastic Duration
DemandCapacity Ratio
Seismic Performance Evaluation
StrainBased Criteria
[Bayraktar, A., Sevim, B., Altunısık A.C., Turker, T., Kartal, M.E., Akkose, M. and Bilici, Y. (2009). “Comparison of near and far fault ground motion effects on the seismic performance evaluation of damreservoirfoundation systems”, Dam Engineering, 19(4), 201239. ##Chen, D.H., Du, C.B., Yuan, J.W. and Hong, Y.W. (2012). “An investigation into the influence of damping on the earthquake response analysis of a high arch dam”, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 16(3), 329349. ##Fok, K.L. and Chopra, A.K. (1986). “Hydrodynamic and foundation flexibility effects in earthquake response of arch dams”, Journal of Structural Engineering, 112(8), 18101828. ##Ghanaat, Y. (2002). “Seismic performance and damage criteria for concrete dams”, Proceedings of the 3rd USJapan Workshop on Advanced Research on Earthquake Engineering for Dams. San Diego, California. ##Ghanaat, Y. (2004). “Failure modes approach to safety evaluation of dams”, Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on earthquake engineering, Vancouver, B.C., Canada. ##Hall, R.L., Matheu, E.E. and Liu, T.C. (1999). “Performance evaluation of the seismic response of concrete gravity dams”, International Conference on Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure Systems, Chongqing, China. ##HaririArdebili, M.A. and Mirzabozorg, H. (2011). “investigation of endurance time method capability in seismic performance evaluation of concrete arch dams”, Dam Engineering, 22(1), 3564. ##HaririArdebili, M.A. and Mirzabozorg, H. (2012). “Effects of nearfault ground motions in seismic performance evaluation of a symmetry arch dam”, Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 49(5), 192199. ##HaririArdebili, M.A. and Mirzabozorg, H. (2013). “A comparative study of the seismic stability of coupled arch damfoundationreservoir systems using infinite elements and viscous boundary models”, International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamic, 13(6), DOI: 10.1142/S0219455413500326. ##HaririArdebili, M.A., Kolbadi, S.M., Heshmati, M. and Mirzabozorg, M. (2012). “Nonlinear analysis of concrete structural components using coaxial rotating smeared crack model”, Journal of Applied Science, 12(3), 21232. ##HaririArdebili, M.A., Mirzabozorg, H. and Kianoush, M.R. (2013). “Seismic analysis of high arch dams considering contractionperipheral joints coupled effects”, Central European Journal of Engineering, 3(3), 549564. ##HaririArdebili, M.A., Mirzabozorg, H., Ghaemian, M., Akhavan, M. and Amini, R. (2011). “Calibration of 3D FE model of DEZ high arch dam in thermal and static conditions using instruments and site observation”, Proceeding of the 6th International Conference in Dam Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal. ##Mirzabozorg, H., Akbari, M. and HaririArdebili, M.A. (2012). “Wave passage and incoherency effects on seismic response of high arch dams”, Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 11(4), 567578. ##Raphael, J.M. (1984). “The tensile strength of concrete”, ACI Journal Proceedings, 81, 158165. ##Studer, J.A. (2004). “Evaluation of earthquake safety of new and existing dams: Trends and experience”, Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, August, Paper No. 233. ##US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), (2007). “EM 111026053: Earthquake design and evaluation of concrete hydraulic structures”, Washington, D.C. ##Wieland, M. and Fan, B.H. (2004). “The activities of the international commission on large dams (ICOLD) in the earthquake safety of large dams”, Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, August, Paper No. 5051. ##Wieland, M., Brenner R.P. and Sommer, P. (2003). “Earthquake resiliency of large concrete dams: Damage, repair, and strengthening concepts”, Proceedings of the 21st International Congress on Large Dams, ICOLD, Montreal, Canada. ##Yamaguchi, Y., Hall, R., Sasaki, T., Matheu, E., Kanenawa, K., Chudgar, A. and Yule, D. (2004). “Seismic performance evaluation of concrete gravity dams”, Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, August, Paper No. 1068. ##Zhang, C., Pan, J. and Wang, J. (2009). “Influence of Seismic Input Mechanisms and Radiation Damping on Arch Dam Response”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29, 12821293.##]