ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Evaluation of Concrete Plants Readiness to Produce High Quality Concrete for Municipal Constructions Using Past Information
The only way to test the ability of concrete plants to produce high quality concrete is to test their final products. Also, the process of testing and controlling concrete quality is time consuming and expensive. In this regard, having a quick, cheap and efficient way to predict the readiness of concrete plants to produce high quality concrete is very valuable. In this paper, a probabilistic multi-attribute algorithm has been developed to address this problem. In this algorithm, the goal is to evaluate readiness of concrete plants to produce high quality concrete based on the error rate of concrete compressive strength. Using past information and data mining techniques, this algorithm predicts the readiness level of concrete plants by similarity of their production factors to past information. Readiness alternatives for plants are ranked using data mining techniques for order preference based on their production factors (PF) and by evaluating the similarity/difference of each PF to past information. A case study of 20 concrete plants is used to illustrate the capability of the new algorithm; with results showing that the algorithm generated nondominated solutions can assist plant managers to set efficient production plan, a task both difficult, cost and time-consuming using current methods. In the case study, lab test totally confirm the algorithm outcomes thus it has been successfully verified.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_66123_8aa6bc37804b02b242ec89433e606add.pdf
2018-06-01
1
16
10.7508/ceij.2018.01.001
Algorithm
Concrete Plant
Data Mining
Error Rate of Concrete Compressive Strength
Meghdad
Mohammadian
mohammadian.m@ut.ac.ir
1
Former Postgraduate Student, School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Mohammad
Shekarchi Zadeh
shekarch@ut.ac.ir
2
Professor, School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran
AUTHOR
Anderson, D.R., and Dewar, J.D. (2003). Manual of ready-mixed concrete, CRC Press.
1
Arıöz, Ö., Arslan, G., Tuncan, M. and Kıvrak, S. (2007). "Web-based quality control of ready mixed concrete", Building and Environment, 42(3), 1465-1470.
2
Chen, L. and Wang, T. (2010). "Modeling strength of high-performance concrete using an improved grammatical evolution combined with Macrogenetic Algorithm", Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 24(3), 281-288.
3
Chung, H.M. and Gray, P. (1999). "Special section: Data mining", Journal of Management Information Systems, 16(1), 11-16
4
Defeo, J. and Juran, J.M. (2010). Juran's quality handbook: The complete guide to performance excellence, McGraw-Hill Education.
5
Fayyad, U.M., Piatetsky-Shapiro, G., Smyth, P. and Uthurusamy, R. (1996). Advances in knowledge discovery and data mining, American Association for Artificial Intelligence Menlo Park, CA.
6
Han, J., Kamber, M. and Pei, J. (2011). Data mining: Concepts and techniques, Morgan Kaufmann.
7
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8
Kazaz, A., Ulubeyli, S. and Turker, F. (2004). "The quality perspective of the ready-mixed concrete industry in Turkey", Building and Environment, 39(11), 1349-1357.
9
Lee, B., Kim, J. and Kim, J. (2009). "Optimum concrete mixture proportion based on a database considering regional characteristics", Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 5(258), 258-265.
10
Lee, S.C. (2003). “Prediction of concrete strength using artificial neural networks”, International Journal of Engineering Structures, 25(7), 849-857.
11
Mostafavi, A. and Karamouz, M. (2010). “Selecting appropriate project delivery system: Fuzzy approach with risk analysis”, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 136(8), 923-930.
12
Ni, H.G. and Wang, J.Z. (2000). “Prediction of compressive strength of concrete by neural networks”, International Journal of Cement and Concrete Research, 30(8), 1245-1250.
13
Pham, A., Hoang, N. and Nguyen, Q. (2015). “Predicting compressive strength of high-performance concrete using metaheuristic-optimized least squares support vector regression”, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 30(3), 06015002;1-4.
14
Rajagopalan, B. and Krovi, R. (2002). “Benchmarking data mining algorithms”, Journal of Database Management, 13(1), 25-35.
15
Richardson, D.N. and Whitwell, B.A. (2014). “Concrete production plant variables affecting flexural strength relative to compressive strength”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering,26(8), 04014032;1-8.
16
Sarkar, D. and Dutta, G. (2010). "Design and application of risk adjusted cumulative sum for strength monitoring of ready mixed concrete", Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 136(6), 623-631.
17
Sarkar, D. and Panchal, R. (2017). “Quality Function Deployment (QFD): A six sigma tool for performance monitoring of ready mixed concrete”, International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology, 4(2), 14-18.
18
Shekarchizadeh, M., Eftekhar, M.H. and Esmaeili, A.H. (2014). Guideline for ready mixed concrete, Elm Va Adab Publication.
19
Topçu, I.B. and Sarıdemir, M. (2008). “Prediction of compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash using artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic”, International Journal of Computational Materials Science, 41(3), 305-311.
20
Yeh, I.-C. (1998), “Modeling of strength of high-performance concrete using artificial neural networks”, Journal of Cement and Concrete Research, 28(12), 1797-1808.
21
Yu, JB., Yu, Y., Wang, LN., Yuan, Z. and Ji, X. (2016). “The knowledge modeling system of ready-mixed concrete enterprise and artificial intelligence with ANN-GA for manufacturing production”, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 27(4), 905–914.
22
Yuan, Z., Wang, L.-N. and Ji, X. (2014). “Prediction of concrete compressive strength: Research on hybrid models genetic based algorithms and ANFIS”, Advances in Engineering Software, 67, 156-163.
23
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Comparison of Radial Consolidation Behavior of Clay under Three Types of Cyclic Loading
Vertical drains and stone columns which have been used in infrastructure construction for highways, ports, coastal regions, etc., provide significant benefits for improving soil characteristics such as reducing the drainage length and accelerating the consolidation process. So the investigation of the radial consolidation is inevitable. Soils may be subjected to cyclic loading such as silos, tanks, etc. This paper presents semi-analytical solutions for radial consolidation and investigates the consolidation behavior under three types of cyclic loading. Consolidation under cyclic loads was calculated using the superimposition rule. Barron (1948) and Olson (1977) have presented theories for calculating radial consolidation under static and ramp load respectively. In this study, by using a set of continuous static loads or a series of infinite ramp loads, with alternatively positive and negative signs, we have extended these theories for rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal cyclic loads. The obtained analytic results demonstrate that the average degree of consolidation at the steady state depends on the integral of the load-time curve for each cycle and it increases with increase of the integral and the results indicate that change in cycle period of time does not effect on the time of getting steady state. Radial and vertical consolidation under rectangular cyclic loading have also compared and the effect of the distance between vertical drains on the time of getting steady state have investigated.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_66124_d25080b800f3e0fc0d479197f78d9805.pdf
2018-06-01
17
33
10.7508/ceij.2018.01.002
Radial Consolidation
Rectangular Cyclic Loading
Superimposition Rule
Trapezoidal Cyclic Loading
Triangular Cyclic Loading
Vertical Drains
َAmin
Amiri
amin.amiri1371@yahoo.com
1
Civil Engineering Department,Engineering Faculty,Shahid Bahonar University,Kerman,Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Mohammad Mohsen
Toufigh
toufigh@uk.ac.ir
2
Civil Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran
AUTHOR
Sina
Sadeghi Janat Abadi
sina.s3993@gmail.com
3
Civil Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran
AUTHOR
Vahid
Toufigh
v.toufigh@kgut.ac.ir
4
Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
AUTHOR
Abbaspour, M. (2014). “An investigation of consolidation process under triangular cyclic loading by numerical and experimental analysis”, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 19, 1403-1417.
1
Barron, R. (1948). “Consolidation of fine-grained soils by drain wells”, Transportation, ASCE, 113, Paper No. 2346.
2
Basett, D. and Brodie, A. (1961). “A study of Matabitchual varved clay”, Ontario Hydro Research News, 13, 1-6.
3
Covo-Torres, Á., Eljaiek-Urzola, M. and Vivas-Reyes, R. (2015). “Radial consolidation for equal strain with resistance in the vertical drain”, Soil and Tillage Research, 145, 87-92.
4
Das, B.M. (2013). Advanced soil mechanics, CRC Press.
5
Deng, Y.-B., Xie, K.-H. and Lu, M.-M. (2013). “Consolidation by vertical drains when the discharge capacity varies with depth and time”, Computers and Geotechnics, 48, 1-8.
6
Haley, X. and Aldrich, X. (1969). “Engineering properties of foundation soils at Long Creek-Fore river areas and Black Cove”, Report to Maine State Highway Company.
7
Hansbo, S., Jamiolkowski, M. and Kok, L. (1981). “Consolidation by vertical drains”, Geotechnique, 31, 45-66.
8
Ladd, C. and Luscher, U. (1965). “Engineering properties of the soils underlying the MIT campus”, Research Report, R65-58.
9
Lei, G., Fu, C. and Ng, C.W. (2016). “Vertical-drain consolidation using stone columns: An analytical solution with an impeded drainage boundary under multi-ramp loading”, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 44, 122-131.
10
Lo, W.-C., Sposito, G., Lee, J.-W. and Chu, H. (2016). “One-dimensional consolidation in unsaturated soils under cyclic loading”, Advances in Water Resources, 91, 122-137.
11
Lowe III, J., Zaccheo, P.F. and Feldman, H.S. (1964). “Consolidation testing with back pressure”, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE, 90, 69-86.
12
Lu, M., Wang, S., Sloan, S.W., Sheng, D. and Xie, K. (2015). “Nonlinear consolidation of vertical drains with coupled radial–vertical flow considering well resistance”, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 43(2), 182-189.
13
Lu, M., Xie, K. and Wang, S. (2011). “Consolidation of vertical drain with depth-varying stress induced by multi-stage loading”, Computers and Geotechnics, 38, 1096-1101.
14
Ni, J., Indraratna, B., Geng, X.-Y., Carter, J.P., and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2013). “Radial consolidation of soft soil under cyclic loads”, Computers and Geotechnics,50, 1-5.
15
Olson, R.E. (1977). “Consolidation under time-dependent loading”, Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, 103, 55-60.
16
Ouria, A., Desai, C.S. and Toufigh, V. (2013). “Disturbed state concept–based solution for consolidation of plastic clays under cyclic loading”, International Journal of Geomechanics, 15(1), 04014039.
17
Razouki, S.S., Bonnier, P., Datcheva, M. and Schanz, T. (2013). “Analytical solution for 1D consolidation under haversine cyclic loading”, International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 37(14), 2367-2372.
18
Razouki, S.S. and Schanz, T. (2011). “One-dimensional consolidation under haversine repeated loading with rest period”, Acta Geotechnica, 6(1), 13-20.
19
Rezaei, Z. (2016). “Consolidation of elastic and inelastic clays under triangular cyclic loading”, M.Sc. Thesis, Univrrsity of Shahid Bahonar, Kerman, Iran (In Persian).
20
Richart, F.E. (1957). “A review of the theories for sand drains”, Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, College of Engineering, University of Florida.
21
Schiffman, R. (1958). “Consolidation of soil under time-dependant loading and varying permeability”, Highway Research Board Proceedings, 37, 584-617.
22
Speirs, A.D., Beaulé, P.E., Ferguson, S.J. and Frei, H. (2014). “Stress distribution and consolidation in cartilage constituents is influenced by cyclic loading and osteoarthritic degeneration”, Journal of Biomechanics, 47(10), 2348-2353.
23
Toufigh, M.M. and Ouria, A. (2009). “Consolidation of inelastic clays under rectangular cyclic loading”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29, 356-363.
24
Tsien, S. (1955). “Stability of marsh deposits”, Highway Research Board Bulletin, 15, 15-43.
25
Walker, R.T. (2011). “Vertical drain consolidation analysis in one, two and three dimensions”, Computers and Geotechnics, 38, 1069-1077.
26
Wallace, G. and Otto, W. (1964). “Differential settlement at selfridge air force base”, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, 90, 197-220.
27
Wilson, N. and Elgohary, M. (1974). “Consolidation of soils under cyclic loading”, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 11, 420-423.
28
Ying-Chun, Z. and Kang-He, X. (2005). “Study on one-dimensional consolidation of soil under cyclic loading and with varied compressibility”, Journal of Zhejiang University Science, 6, 141-147.
29
Yoshikuni, H. and Nakanodo, H. (1974). “Consolidation of soils by vertical drain wells with finite permeability”, Soils and Foundations, 14, 35-46.
30
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Behavior of Piled Raft Foundation on Heterogeneous Clay Deposits Using Random Field Theory
In the case of problematic soils and tall buildings where the design requirements cannot be satisfied merely by a raft foundation, it is of common practice to improve the raft performance by adding a number of piles so that the ultimate load capacity and settlement behavior can be enhanced. In this study, the effect of spatial variability of soil parameters on the bearing capacity of piled raft foundation is investigated based on the random field theory using the finite difference software of FLAC3D. The coefficient of variation (COV) of the soil’s undrained shear strength, the ratio of standard deviation to the mean, was considered as a random variable. Moreover, the effect of variation of this parameter on the bearing capacity of piled raft foundation in undrained clayey soils was studied taking the Monte Carlo simulation approach and the normal statistical distribution. According to the results, taking into account the soil heterogeneity generally results in more contribution of the raft in bearing capacity than that of the homogenous soils obtained by experimental relationships, which implies the significance of carrying out stochastic analyses where the soil properties are intensively variant.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_66125_4c669263eea96ea7c43bb9651f0dd297.pdf
2018-06-01
35
54
10.7508/ceij.2018.01.003
Bearing Ratio
Piled Raft
Random Field Theory
Spatial Variation
Undrained Shear Strength
Reza
Jamshidi Chenari
jamshidi_reza@yahoo.com
1
The University of Guilan
LEAD_AUTHOR
Ali
Ghorbani
ghorbani@guilan.ac.ir
2
The University of Guilan
AUTHOR
Amin
Eslami
amin.eslami@gmail.com
3
The University of Guilan
AUTHOR
Fazeleh
Mirabbasi
f.mirabassi@gmail.com
4
The University of Guilan
AUTHOR
Adler, R.J. (2010). "The geometry of random fields", Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, SIAM edition.
1
Ahmed, A. and Soubra, A.H. (2012). "Probabilistic analysis of strip footings resting on a spatially random soil using subset simulation approach", Georisk, 6(3), 188–201.
2
Albusoda, B.S. and Salem L.A.K. (2016). "The effect of interaction on pile-raft system settlement subjected to earthquake excitation", Applied Research Journal, 2(4), 205-214.
3
Bajad, S. and Sahu R. (2008). "An experimental study on the behavior of vertically loaded piled raft on soft clay", The 12th International Conference of International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG), Goa, India.
4
Baziar, M., Ghorbani A. and Katzenbach R. (2009). "Small-scale model test and three-dimensional analysis of pile-raft foundation on medium-dense sand", International Journal of Civil Engineering, 7(3), 170-175.
5
Bourgeois, E., De Buhan, P. and Hassen, G. (2012). "Settlement analysis of piled-raft foundations by means of a multiphase model accounting for soil-pile interactions", Computers and Geotechnics, 46, 26-38.
6
Ching, J. and Phoon, K.K. (2013). "Probability distribution for mobilized shear strengths of spatially variable soils under uniform stress states", Georisk, 7(3), 209–224.
7
Cho, J., Lee, J.H., Jeong, S. and Lee, J. (2012). "The settlement behavior of piled raft in clay soils", Ocean Engineering, 53, 153-163.
8
Dasaka, S.M. and Zhang, L.M. (2012). "Spatial variability of in situ weathered soil", Géotechnique, 62(5), 375-384.
9
DeGroot, D.J. (1996). "Analyzing spatial variability of in situ soil properties", Uncertainty in the Geologic Environment: From Theory to Practice, ASCE.
10
Elahi, A. (2011). "Evaluation of piled-raft bearing capacity located on heterogeneous soils using random field theory", M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran, (in Persian).
11
Fan, H., Huang, Q. and Liang, R. (2014). "Reliability analysis of piles in spatially varying soils considering multiple failure modes", Computers and Geotechnics, 57(Apr), 97-104.
12
Fleming, K., Weltman, A., Randolph, M. and Elson, K. (2008). Piling engineering, CRC press.
13
Griffiths, D. and Fenton G.A. (2001). "Bearing capacity of spatially random soil: The undrained clay prandtl problem revisited", Geotechnique, 51(4), 351-360.
14
Haldar, S. and Babu G.S. (2008a). "Reliability measures for pile foundations based on cone penetration test data", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 45(12), 1699-1714.
15
Haldar, S. and Babu, G.S. (2008b). "Effect of soil spatial variability on the response of laterally loaded pile in undrained clay", Computers and Geotechnics, 35(4), 537-547.
16
Husain, A. (2016). "Probabilistic study for single pile in cohesionless soil Using Monte Carlo simulation technique", International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 7(2). 628-633.
17
Itasca, F.D. (2009). "Fast Lagrangian analysis of continua in 3 dimensions, Version 4.0", Minneapolis, Minnesota, Itasca Consulting Group 438.
18
Jamshidi Chenari, R. and Mahigir, A. (2014). "The effect of spatial variability and anisotropy of soils on bearing capacity of shallow foundations", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 47(2), 199-213.
19
Jamshidi Chenari, R., and Alaie, R. (2015). "Effects of anisotropy in correlation structure on the stability of an undrained clay slope", Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards, 9(2), 109-123.
20
Jamshidi Chenari, R. and Behfar, B. (2017). "Stochastic Analysis of Seepage through Natural Alluvial Deposits Considering Mechanical Anisotropy", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 50(2), 233-253.
21
Jiang, S.H., Li, D.Q., Cao, Z.J., Zhou, C.B. and Phoon, K.K. (2014). "Efficient system reliability analysis of slope stability in spatially variable soils using Monte Carlo simulation", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 141(2): 04014096.
22
Kalos, M.H. and Whitlock, P.A. (2008). Monte Carlo methods, John Wiley & Sons.
23
Kenarsari, E., Oloomi, R., Jamshidi Chenari, R. and Eslami, A. (2011). "Effect of vertical heterogeneity in soil strength on pile bearing capacity prediction from CPT data", Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference on Deep Foundations, Boston, MA.
24
Lee, J., Kim, Y. and Jeong, S. (2010). "Three-dimensional analysis of bearing behavior of piled raft on soft clay", Computers and Geotechnics, 37(1), 103-114.
25
Lee, J., Park, D. and Choi, K. (2014). "Analysis of load sharing behavior for piled rafts using normalized load response model", Computers and Geotechnics, 57, 65-74.
26
Lee, J., Park, D. and Park, K. (2015). "Estimation of load-sharing ratios for piled rafts in sands that includes interaction effects", Computers and Geotechnics, 63, 306-314.
27
Li, D.Q., Qi, X.H., Cao, Z.J., Tang, X.S., Phoon, K.K. and Zhou, C.B. (2016). "Evaluating slope stability uncertainty using coupled Markov chain", Computers and Geotechnics, 73: 72-82.
28
Li, M., Lu, X., Lu, X. and Ye, L. (2014). "Influence of soil–structure interaction on seismic collapse resistance of super-tall buildings", Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 6(5), 477-485.
29
Lloret-Cabot, M., Fenton, G.A. and Hicks, M.A. (2014). "On the estimation of scale of fluctuation in geostatistics", Georisk, 8(2), 129–140.
30
Matsuo, M. and Kuroda, K. (1974). "Probabilistic approach to design of embankments", Soils and Foundations, 14(2), 1-17.
31
Morse, R. (1971). "Importance of proper soil units for statistical analysis", Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability to Soil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong.
32
Nguyen, D.D.C., Jo, S.B. and Kim, D.S. (2013). "Design method of piled-raft foundations under vertical load considering interaction effects", Computers and Geotechnics, 47, 16-27.
33
Niandou, H. and Breysse, D. (2007). "Reliability analysis of a piled raft accounting for soil horizontal variability", Computers and Geotechnics, 34(2), 71-80.
34
Papadopoulos, C.E. and Yeung, H. (2001). “Uncertainty estimation and Monte Carlo simulation method”, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 12(4), 291-298.
35
Park, D., Park, D. and Lee, J. (2016). "Analyzing load response and load sharing behavior of piled rafts installed with driven piles in sands", Computers and Geotechnics, 78, 62-71.
36
Patil, J.D., Vasanwala, S.A. and Solanki, C.H. (2014). "An experimental investigation on behavior of piled raft foundation", International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences, 5(2), 300.
37
Phoon, K.K. and Kulhawy, F.H. (1999). "Characterization of geotechnical variability", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 36(4), 612-624.
38
Popescu, R., Deodatis, G. and Nobahar, A. (2005). "Effects of random heterogeneity of soil properties on bearing capacity", Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 20(4), 324-341.
39
Poulos, H. (2002). "Simplified design procedure for piled raft foundations", Deep Foundations 2002: An International Perspective on Theory, Design, Construction and Performance, pp: 441-458.
40
Poulos, H.G. and Davids, A.J. (2005). "Foundation design for the emirates twin towers, Dubai." Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 42(3), 716-730.
41
Randolph, M. (1992). "Design methods for pile groups and piled rafts", XIII ICSMFE, 61-82.
42
Reul, O. and Randolph M. (2003). "Piled rafts in overconsolidated clay: comparison of in situ measurements and numerical analyses", Geotechnique, 53(3), 301-315.
43
Reul, O. and Randolph, M.F. (2004). "Design strategies for piled rafts subjected to nonuniform vertical loading", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 130(1), 1-13.
44
Saeedi Azizkandi, A. and Fakher, A. (2014). "A Simple Algorithm for Analyzing a Piled Raft by Considering Stress Distribution", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 47(2), 215-227.
45
Salgado, R., and Kim, D. (2014). "Reliability analysis of load and resistance factor design of slopes", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 140(1),57-73.
46
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47
Vanmarcke, E. (2010). Random fields: Analysis and synthesis, World Scientific.
48
Zhang, J., Zhang, L. and Tang, W.H. (2011). "New methods for system reliability analysis of soil slopes", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 48(7), 1138-1148.
49
Zhang, L., Goh, S.H. and Yi, J. (2016). "A centrifuge study of the seismic response of pile-raft systems embedded in soft clay", Géotechnique, 67(6), 479-490.
50
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Identification of Structural Defects Using Computer Algorithms
One of the numerous methods recently employed to study the health of structures is the identification of anomaly in data obtained for the condition of the structure, e.g. the frequencies for the structural modes, stress, strain, displacement, speed, and acceleration) which are obtained and stored by various sensors. The methods of identification applied for anomalies attempt to discover and recognize patterns governing data which run in sharp contrast to the statistical population. In the case of data obtained from sensors, data appearing in contrast to others, i.e. outliers, may signal the occurrence of damage in the structure. The present research aims to employ computer algorithms to identify structural defects based on data gathered by sensors indicating structural conditions. The present research investigates the performance of various methods including Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN), Manhattan Distance, Curve Fitting, and Box Plot in the identification of samples from damages in a case study using frequency values related to a cable-support bridge. Subsequent to the implementation of the methods in the datasets, it was shown that the ANN provided the optimal performance.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_66126_107a85b51c4689f36e46602ab27cd83c.pdf
2018-06-01
55
86
10.7508/ceij.2018.01.004
Artificial Neural Networks
Damage Identification
frequency
Manhattan Distance
Structures
Mohammad
Mohammadizadeh
mrzmohammadizadeh@yahoo.com
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Babak
Yasi
babakyasi69@yahoo.com
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran
AUTHOR
Alguliyev, R.M., Aliguliyev, R.M., Imamverdiyev, Y.N. and Sukhostat, L.V. (2017). "An anomaly detection based on optimization", International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications, 9(12), 87-96.
1
Alguliyev, R., Aliguliyev, R. and Sukhostat, L. (2017). "Anomaly detection in Big data based on clustering", Statistics, Optimization and Information Computing, 5(4), 325-340.
2
Beliakov, G., Kelarev, A. and Yearwood, J. (2011). "Robust Artificial Neural Networks and Outlier Detection", Journal of Mathematical Programming and Operations Research, 61(12), 1467-1490 , Deakin University, Australia.
3
Benjamini, Y. (1988). "Opening the Box of a Boxplot", The American Statistician, 42(4), 257-262.
4
Bai, M., Wang, X., Xin, J. and Wang, G. (2016). "An efficient algorithm for distributed density-based outlier detection on big data", Neurocomputing, 181(C), 139-146.
5
Bai, L., Liang, J. and Dang, C. (2011). "An initialization method to simultaneously find initial cluster centers and the number of clusters for clustering categorical data", Knowledge-Based Systems, 24(6), 785-795.
6
Ester, M., Kriegel, H-P., Sander, J. and Xu, X. (1996). "A Density-Based Algorithm for Discovering Clusters in Large Spatial Databases with Noise", KDD'96 Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining,Institute for Computers Science, University of Munich, Germany, 226-231.
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8
Gaffney, J. and Ulvila, J. (2001). "Evaluation of intrusion detectors: A decision theory approach", In Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, Oakland, CA, USA, 50-61.
9
Gagolewski, M., Bartoszuk, M. and Cena A. (2016). "Genie: A new, fast, and outlier-resistant hierarchical clustering algorithm", Information Sciences, 363, 8-23.
10
Hand, D., Mannila, H. and Smyth, P. (2001). "rinciples of data mining, The MIT Press.
11
Huang, J., Zhu, Q., Yang, L. and Feng, J. (2016). "A non-parameter outlier detection algorithm based on Natural Neighbor", Knowledge-Based Systems, 92, 71-77.
12
Johnson, R. and Wichern, D. (1992)."Applied multivariate statistical analysis, Prentice Hall.
13
Jiang, F., Liu, G., Du, J. and Sui, Y. (2016). "Initialization of K-modes clustering using outlier detection techniques”, Information Sciences, 332, 167-183.
14
Karim, A.N.M., Nordin, A.N. and Begum, S. (2014), "Technical and Economic Feasibility of Sensor Technology for Health/Environmental Condition Monitoring", Comprehensive Materials Processing, 13, 499-514.
15
Latecki, L. J., Lazarevic, A. and Pokrajac, D. (2007). "Outlier Detection with Kernel Density Functions", 5th International Conference on Machine Learning and Data Mining in Pattern Recognition (MLDM), Leipzig, Germany, pp. 61-75.
16
Loureiro, A., Torgo, L. and Soares, C. (2004). "Outlier detection using clustering methods: A data cleaning application", In proceedings of the data mining for business workshop, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
17
Massart, D.L., Smeyers-Verbeke, A., Capron, X. and Schlesier, K. (2005). "Practical data handling visual presentation of data by means of box plots", Journal of Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 18(4), 215-218.
18
Montgomery, D.C., Peck, E.A. and Vining, G.G. (2012). Introduction to Linear Regression Analysis, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA.
19
Motulsky, H. and Brown, R. (2006). "Detecting outliers when fitting data with nonlinear regression: A new method based on robust nonlinear regression and the false discovery rate", BMC Bioinformatics, 7(123), 1471-2105.
20
Ni, Y.Q. (2014). "Structural health monitoring of cable-supported bridges based on vibration measurements", Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2014, Porto, Portugal, pp. 65-72.
21
Sinwar, D. and Kaushik, R. (2014). "Study of Euclidean and Manhattan Distance Metrics using simple K-means clustering", International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology, 2, 270-274.
22
Tang, B. and He, H. (2017), "A local density-based approach for outlier detection", Neurocomputing, 241, 171-180.
23
Zhuang, W., Zhang, Y. and Grassle, J.F. (2004). "Identifying erroneous data using outlier detection techniques", Proceedings Ocean Biodiversity Informatics, International Conference on Marine Biodiversity Data Management, Hamburg, Germany, 37, 187-192.
24
Zhu, S. and Xu, L. (2018)."Many-objective fuzzy centroids clustering algorithm for categorical data", Expert Systems with Applications, 96, 230-248.
25
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Thermodynamic Modeling of the Effects of Wollastonite-Silica Fume Combination in the Cement Hydration and Sulfate Attack
Sulfate attack is a series of physico-chemical reactions between hardened cement paste and sulfate ions. Sulfate ion penetration into the hydrated cement results in the formation of voluminous and deleterious phases such as gypsum and ettringite which are believed to cause deterioration and expansion of concrete. Concrete deterioration due to sulfate attack depends on many parameters, however, in experimental studies, the implementation of the parameters and obtaining the results in a short time are too difficult. In this paper the effect of wollastonite, with and without silica fume, on the performance of cement based materials during hydration and magnesium sulfate attack was studied by thermodynamic modeling. Thermodynamic modelling was carried out using the Gibbs free energy minimization program GEMS. By this method, in addition to investigating the type and volume of the produced material, the optimal substitution percentage of wollastonite and silica fume were studied as well. In sulfate attack, especially at higher percentages of substitution, wollasonite is not very effective in itself. Wollasonite replacement has a reverse effect on monosulfate and ettringite phases. Volume of these phases increases with addition of the substitution percentage. Substituting a portion of the cement with wollastonite and silica fume would improve sulfate resistance. Substitution of 5% of wollasonite and 10% of silica fume has shown the best performance, highest increase in C-S-H gel volume and reduction in harmful phases such as gypsum, ettringite and brucite.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_66127_74549f7130bccc133bfe782a56e320e3.pdf
2018-06-01
87
100
10.7508/ceij.2018.01.005
modeling
Silica Fume
Sulfate Attack
Thermodynamics
Wollastonite
Amir
Tarighat
tarighat@srttu.edu
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Yaghout
Modarres
yaghout.modarres@gmail.com
2
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University,
LEAD_AUTHOR
Milad
Mohammadi
milad.mohamadi@srttu.edu
3
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University
AUTHOR
Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. (2002). "Attack on plain and blended cements exposed to aggressive sulfate environments", Cement and Concrete Composites, 24(3), 305-316.
1
Arshad, A., Shahid, I., Anwar, U.H.C., Baig, M.N., Khan, S. and Shakir, K. (2014). "The wastes utility in concrete", International Journal of Environmental Research, 8(4), 1323-1328.
2
Askarinejad, A. (2017). "Using different methods of nanofabrication as a new way to activate supplementary cementitious materials; a review", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 50(1), 1-19.
3
American Society for Testing and Materials. Committee C-9 on Concrete and Concrete Aggregates. (2005). Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use in concrete, ASTM C, 685.
4
Balonis, M. (2010). "The influence of inorganic chemical accelerators and corrosion inhibitors on the mineralogy of hydrated Portland cement systems", PhD. Thesis, Aberdeen University.
5
Crooks, A.F. (1999). Wollastonite in south Australia, South Australian Department of Primary Industries and Resources, Report Book 99/16.
6
Damidot, D., Lothenbach, B., Herfort, D. and Glasser, F.P. (2011). "Thermodynamics and cement science", Cement and Concrete Research, 41(7), 679-695.
7
Gollop, R.S. and Taylor, H.F.W. (1992). "Microstructural and microanalytical studies of sulfate attack, I: Ordinary Portland cement paste", Cement and Concrete Research, 22(6), 1027-1038.
8
Gosh, N. (2002). Advances in cement technology: Chemistry, manufacture, and testing, Tech Books International, New Delhi.
9
Jahim, H. (2010). "The use of wollastonite to enhance fresh and mechanicalproperties of concrete", M.Sc. Thesis, Baghdad University.
10
Kalla, P., Misra, A., Gupta, R.C., Csetenyi, L., Gahlot, V. and Arora, A. (2013). "Mechanical and durability studies on concrete containing wollastonite–fly ash combination", Construction and Building Materials, 40, 1142-1150.
11
Kolani, B., Buffo-Lacarrière, L., Sellier, A., Escadeillas, G., Boutillon, L. and Linger, L. (2012). "Hydration of slag-blended cements", Cement and Concrete Composites, 34(9), 1009-1018.
12
Kulik, D.A., Wagner, T., Dmytrieva, S.V, Kosakowski, G., Hingerl, F.F., Chudnenko, K.V. and Berner, U.R. (2013). "GEM-Selektor geochemical modeling package: Revised algorithm and GEMS3K numerical kernel for coupled simulation codes", Computational Geosciences, 17(1), 1-24.
13
Kunther, W. (2012). "Investigation of sulfate attack by experimental and thermodynamic means", M.Sc. Thesis, EPFL Swiss University.
14
Kunther, W., Lothenbach, B. and Scrivener, K.L. (2013). "On the relevance of volume increase for the length changes of mortar bars in sulfate solutions", Cement and Concrete Research, 46, 23-29.
15
Lothenbach, B. (2010). "Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations in cementitious systems", Materials and Structures, 43(10), 1413-1433.
16
Lothenbach, B., Bary, B., Le Bescop, P., Schmidt, T. and Leterrier, N. (2010a). "Sulfate ingress in Portland cement", Cement and Concrete Research, 40(8), 1211-1225.
17
Lothenbach, B., Damidot, D., Matschei, T. and Marchand, J. (2010b). "Thermodynamic modelling: State of knowledge and challenges", Advances in Cement Research, 22(4), 211-223.
18
Lothenbach, B., Scrivener, K. and Hooton, R.D. (2011). "Supplementary cementitious materials", Cement and Concrete Research, 41(12), 1244-1256.
19
Lothenbach, B., Le Saout, G., Ben Haha, M., Figi, R. and Wieland, E. (2012). "Hydration of a low-alkali CEM III/B–SiO 2 cement (LAC)", Cement and Concrete Research, 42(2), 410-423.
20
Mathur, R., Mishra, A.K. and Goel, P. (2007). "Marble slurry dust and wollastonite-inert mineral admixture for cement concrete", Indian Highways, 35(12), 41-46.
21
Maxim, L.D. and Mcconnell, E.E. (2005). "A review of the toxicology and epidemiology of wollastonite", Inhalation Toxicology, 17(9), 451-466.
22
Piasta, W., Marczewska, J. and Jaworska, M. (2014). "Some aspects and mechanisms of sulphate attack", Structure and Environment, 6(3), 19-24.
23
Ramezanianpour, A., Pourbeyk, P. and Modi, F. (2012). "The durability of rice husk ash concrete against sulfate attack", Amirkabir Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 45(1),13-23.
24
Ransinchung RN, G.D. and Kumar, B. (2009). "Investigations on pastes and mortars of ordinary Portland cement admixed with wollastonite and microsilica", Journal of Materials in Civil rngineering, 22(4), 305-313.
25
Rothstein, D., Thomas, J.J., Christensen, B.J. and Jennings, H.M. (2002). "Solubility behavior of Ca-, S-, Al-, and Si-bearing solid phases in Portland cement pore solutions as a function of hydration time", Cement and Concrete Research, 32(10), 1663-1671.
26
Tarighat, A. and Afzali, O. (2016). "Study of mechanical properties and some durability indices of concrete containing microplasma wollastonite and silica fume pozzolan", Journal of Civil and Enviroment Engineering, 47(1), 47-57.
27
Thoenen, T., Hummel, W., Berner, U. and Curti, E. (2014). The PSI/Nagra chemical thermodynamic database 12/07, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland. Tixier, R. and Mobasher, B. (2003). "Modeling of damage in cement-based materials subjected to external sulfate attack. I: Formulation", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 15(4), 305-313.
28
Zelic, J., Radovanovic, I. and Jozic, D. (2007). "The effect of silica fume additions on the durability of Portland cement mortars exposed to magnesium sulfate attack", Materials and Technology, 41(2), 91-94.
29
De Weerdt, K., Ben Haha, M., Le Saout, G., Kjellsen, K.O., Justnes, H. and Lothenbach, B. (2011). "Hydration mechanisms of ternary Portland cements containing limestone powder and fly ash", Cement and Concrete Research. 41(3), 279-291.
30
Whittaker, M. and Black, L. (2015). "Current knowledge of external sulfate attack", Advances in Cement Research, 27(9), 532-545.
31
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Analytical Solutions for the Flexural Behavior of Metal Beams Strengthened with Prestressed Unbonded CFRP Plates
Trapezoidal prestressed unbonded retrofit (TPUR) systems have been recently developed and tested. The authors have already developed a comprehensive and accurate analytical solution for the TPUR system that takes many system parameters into account. The main aim of this paper is to develop a simplified analytical solution for predicting the behavior of metal beams that have been strengthened with the TPUR system. The developed analysis method can be useful to engineers because of its simplicity. An energy approach based on Castigliano’s theorems is used to study the flexural behavior of a steel beam retrofitted with the TPUR system. A parametric study was performed and the comparative results showed that the results using Castigliano’s first theorem are in agreement with the results using the flexibility approach.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_66128_e4476a0b4a5dbfbab6a9ed4d6c7e3d32.pdf
2018-06-01
101
118
10.7508/ceij.2018.01.006
bridges
Energy Method
Flexibility Method
Metallic Beams
Prestressed CFRP Laminates
Strengthening
Farrokh
Kianmofrad
farrokh.kianmofrad@asu.edu
1
Arizona State University, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Tempe AZ 85287, USA
LEAD_AUTHOR
Elyas
Ghafoori
elyas.ghafoori@empa.ch
2
Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Structural Engineering Research Laboratory, Dübendorf, Switzerland
AUTHOR
Masoud
Motavalli
masoud.motavalli@empa.ch
3
Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Structural Engineering Research Laboratory, Dübendorf, Switzerland
AUTHOR
Mohammad
Rahimian
rahimian@ut.ac.ir
4
University of Tehran, School of Civil Engineering, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Al-Emrani, M. and Kliger, R. (2006). "Analysis of interfacial shear stresses in beams strengthened with bonded prestressed laminates", Composites Part B: Engineering, 37(4), 265-272.
1
Aljabar, N.J., Zhao, X.L., Al-Mahaidi, R., Ghafoori, E., Motavalli, M. and Koay, Y.C. (2017). "Fatigue tests on UHM-CFRP strengthened steel plates with central inclined cracks under different damage levels", Composite Structures, 160, 995-1001.
2
Aljabar, N.J., Zhao, X.L., Al-Mahaidi, R., Ghafoori, E., Motavalli, M. and Powers, N. (2016). "Effect of Crack Orientation on Fatigue Behaviour of CFRP- Strengthened Steel Plates", Composite Structures, 152, 295-305.
3
Benachour, A., Benyoucef, S. and Tounsi, A. (2008). "Interfacial stress analysis of steel beams reinforced with bonded prestressed FRP plate", Engineering Structures, 30(11), 3305-3315.
4
Boresi, A.P., Schmidt, R.J. and Sidebottom, O.M. (1993). Advanced mechanics of materials, Wiley New York.
5
Fernando, D., Schumacher, A., Motavalli, M., Teng, J. G., Yu, T. and Ghafoori, E. (2010). "Fatigue strengthening of cracked steel beams with CFRP plates", ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 271-276.
6
Ghafoori, E. (2013). "Interfacial stresses in beams strengthened with bonded prestressed plates", Engineering Structures, 46, 508-510.
7
Ghafoori, E. (2015). "Fatigue strengthening of metallic members using un-bonded and bonded CFRP laminates." PhD Thesis, ETH-Zurich, (http://dx.doi.org/10.3929/ethz-a-010453130 ).
8
Ghafoori, E. and Motavalli, M. (2011). "Analytical calculation of stress intensity factor of cracked steel I-beams with experimental analysis and 3D digital image correlation measurements", Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 78(18), 3226-3242.
9
Ghafoori, E. and Motavalli, M. (2013). "Flexural and interfacial behavior of metallic beams strengthened by prestressed bonded plates", Composite Structures, 101, 22-34.
10
Ghafoori, E. and Motavalli, M. (2015a). "Innovative CFRP-prestressing system for strengthening metallic structures", Journal of Composites for Construction, 19(6), 04015006.
11
Ghafoori, E. and Motavalli, M. (2015b). "Lateral-torsional buckling of steel I-beams retrofitted by bonded and un-bonded CFRP laminates with different pre-stress levels: Experimental and numerical study", Construction and Building Materials, 76, 194-206.
12
Ghafoori, E. and Motavalli, M. (2015c). "Normal, high and ultra-high modulus CFRP laminates for bonded and un-bonded strengthening of steel beams", Materials and Design, 67, 232-243.
13
Ghafoori, E. and Motavalli, M. (2016). "A retrofit theory to prevent fatigue crack initiation in aging riveted bridges using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer materials", Polymers, 8, 308.
14
Ghafoori, E., Motavalli, M., Botsis, J., Herwig, A. and Galli, M. (2012). "Fatigue strengthening of damaged metallic beams using prestressed unbonded and bonded CFRP plates", International Journal of Fatigue, 44, 303-315.
15
Ghafoori, E., Motavalli, M., Nussbaumer, A., Herwig, A., Prinz, G. and Fontana, M. (2015a). "Determination of minimum CFRP pre-stress levels for fatigue crack prevention in retrofitted metallic beams", Engineering Structures, 84, 29–41.
16
Ghafoori, E., Motavalli, M., Nussbaumer, A., Herwig, A., Prinz, G.S. and Fontana, M. (2015b). "Design criterion for fatigue strengthening of riveted beams in a 120-year-old railway metallic bridge using pre-stressed CFRP plates", Composites Part B: Engineering, 68, 1-13.
17
Ghafoori, E., Motavalli, M., Zhao, X. L., Nussbaumer, A. and Fontana, M. (2015c). "Fatigue design criteria for strengthening metallic beams with bonded CFRP plates." Engineering Structures, 101, 542-557.
18
Ghafoori, E. and Motavalli, M. (2015d). "Innovative CFRP-prestressing system for strengthening metallic structures", Journal of Composites for Construction, 19(6), 04015006.
19
Ghafoori, E., Prinz, G.S., Mayor, E., Nussbaumer, A., Motavalli, M., Herwig, A. and Fontana, M. (2014). "Finittione element analysis for fatigue damage reduction in metallic riveted bridges using pre-stressed CFRP plates", Polymers, 6(4), 1096-1118.
20
Ghafoori, E., Schumacher, A. and Motavalli, M. (2012). "Fatigue behavior of notched steel beams reinforced with bonded CFRP plates: Determination of prestressing level for crack arrest", Engineering Structures, 45, 270-283.
21
Hibbeler, R.C. (2014). Structural analysis, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458.
22
Hosseini, A., Ghafoori, E., Motavalli, M. and Nussbaumer, A. (2016). "Stress analysis of unbonded and bonded prestressed CFRP-strengthened steel plates", 8th International Conference on Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE2016), 14-16 December 2016, Hong Kong, China.
23
Huawen, Y., König, C., Ummenhofer, T., Shizhong, Q. and Plum, R. (2010). "Fatigue performance of tension steel plates strengthened with prestressed CFRP laminates", Journal of Composites for Construction, 14(5), 609-615.
24
Kerboua, B. and Benmoussat, A. (2011). "Strengthening of damaged structures with bonded prestressed FRP composites plates: An improved theoretical solution", Journal of Composite Materials, 45(5), 499-512.
25
Kianmofrad, F., Ghafoori, E., Elyasi, M.M., Motavalli, M. and Rahimian, M. (2017). "Strengthening of metallic beams with different types of pre-stressed un-bonded retrofit systems", Composite Structures, 159, 81-95.
26
Park, S., Kim, T., Kim, K. and Hong, S.-N. (2010). "Flexural behavior of steel I-beam prestressed with externally unbonded tendons", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 66(1), 125-132.
27
Ponnada, M.R. and Vipparthy, R. (2013). "Improved Method of Estimating Deflection in Prestressed Steel I-Beams", Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (BHRC), 14(5), 765-772.
28
Rahimian, M. and Ghorbani Tanha, A.K. (2002). Strutural analysis, Sanjesh, Tehran, Iran, (in Persian).
29
Rashid Dadash, P. and Ramezanianpour, A.A. (2014). "Hybrid fiber reinforced concrete containing pumice and metakaolin", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 47(2), 229-238.
30
Saleh Jalali, R. and Shadafza, E. (2016). "The elastic modulus of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) with random distribution of aggregate and fiber", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 49(1), 21-32.
31
Schnerch, D. and Rizkalla, S. (2008). "Flexural strengthening of steel bridges with high modulus CFRP strips", Journal of Bridge Engineering, 13(2), 192-201.
32
Soranakom, C. and Mobasher, B. (2007). "Closed-form solutions for flexural response of fiber-reinforced concrete beams", Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 133(8), 933-941.
33
Täljsten, B., Hansen, C.S. and Schmidt, J.W. (2009). "Strengthening of old metallic structures in fatigue with prestressed and non-prestressed CFRP laminates", Construction and Building Materials, 23(4), 1665-1677.
34
Tavakkolizadeh, M. and Saadatmanesh, H. (2003). "Fatigue strength of steel girders strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer patch", Journal of Structural Engineering, 129(2), 186-196.
35
Timoshenko, S.P. and Young, D.H. (1965). Theory of structures, McGraw-Hill, New York.
36
U.S. Department of Transportation. (1986). "Highway bridge replacement and rehabilitation program", Federal Highway Administration, Bridge Division Office of Engineering.
37
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Evaluation of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete Exposed to Severe Environmental Conditions
Hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) consisting of two or more different types of fibers has been widely investigated because of its superior mechanical properties. In the present study, the effect of the addition of steel (0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1% of concrete volume) and Polypropylene (0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% of concrete volume) fibers on the surface scaling resistance of concrete, depth of penetration of water, and compressive strength of concrete is investigated. The permeability test is conducted for all the specimens to measure the depth of penetration of water under pressure. Moreover, scaling resistance of concrete subjected to freezing and thawing cycles in the presence of salt solution is assessed to simulate the durability of concrete under field exposure conditions. The results showed that the addition of fibers increases the permeability of concrete. However, it enhances the scaling resistance and compressive strength of concrete. The mixture containing 0.4% of Polypropylene (PP) fibers and 0.75% of steel fibers demonstrated the highest scaling resistance since the scaled materials in this mixture were almost half weight of the materials scaled from the control mixture after 84 cycles of freezing and thawing. Increasing the scaling resistance of concrete leads to a better long-term serviceability performance of HFRC compared to plain concrete, making these composites a great choice for application in environments exposed to cold weather.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_66129_fa1fbd993a9e699c4503575cf2d452a3.pdf
2018-06-01
119
130
10.7508/ceij.2018.01.007
Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Permeability
PP Fibers
Scaling Resistance
Steel Fibers
A.R.
Ramezani
ahmad91@yahoo.com
1
Department of civil engineering, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
AUTHOR
M. R.
Esfahani
esfahani@um.ac.ir
2
Department of civil engineering, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Balaguru, P., Narahari, R. and Patel, M. (1992). “Flexural toughness of steel fiber reinforced concrete”, International Concrete Abstracts Portal, 89(6), 541-546.
1
Belletti, B. and Cerioni, R. (2008). “Design aspects on steel fiber-reinforced concrete pavements”, Materials in Civil Engineering, 20(9), 599-607.
2
Berkowski, P. and Kosior-Kazberuk, M. (2015). “Effect of fiber on the concrete resistance to surface scaling due to cyclic freezing and thawing”, Procedia Engineering, 111, 121-127.
3
Cantin, R. and Pigeon, M. (1996). “Deicer salt scaling resistance of steel-fiber-reinforced concrete”, Cement and Concrete Research, 26(11), 1639-1648.
4
Fang, H., Zou, F., Liu, W., Wu, Ch., Bai, Y. and Hui, D. (2017). “Mechanical performance of concrete pavement reinforced by CFRP grids for bridge deck applications”, Composites Part B: Engineering, 110, 315-335.
5
Hsie, M., Tu, C. and Song, P.S. (2008). “Mechanical properties of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete”, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 494, 153-157.
6
Islam, G. and Gupta, S. (2016). “Evaluating plastic shrinkage and permeability of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete”, International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 5, 345-354.
7
Kosmatka, S.H., Kerkhoff, B. and Panarese, W.C. (2003). Design and control of concrete mixtures, Portland Cement Association.
8
Miloud, B. (2005). “Permeability and porosity characteristics of steel fiber reinforced concrete”, Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Building and Housing), 6(4), 317-330.
9
Mohod, M. and Kadam, K. (2016). “Behavior of polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete pavement under static wheel load”, Sixth International Congress on Computational Mechanics and Simulation, India.
10
Mulheron, M., Kevern, J. and Rupnow, D. (2015). “Laboratory fatigue and toughness evaluation of fiber-reinforced concrete”, Transportation Research Record, 2508, 39-47.
11
Nili, M. and Zaheri, M. (2011). “Deicer salt-scaling resistance of non-air-entrained roller-compacted concrete pavements”, Construction and Building Materials, 25, 1671-1676.
12
Niu, D., Jiang, L. and Bai, M. (2013). “Study of the performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete to water and salt freezing condition”, Materials and Design, 44, 267-273.
13
Okay, F. and Engin, S. (2012). “Torsional behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete beams”, Construction and Building Materials, 28(1), 269-275.
14
Quanbing, Y. and Beirong, Z. (2005). “Effect of steel fiber on the deicer-scaling resistance of concrete”, Cement and Concrete Research, 35, 2360-2363.
15
Penteado, D. and Thaumaturgo, C. (2005). “Fracture toughness of geopolymeric concretes reinforced with basalt fibers”, Cement and Concrete Composites, 27, 49-54.
16
Pigeon, M., Pleau, R. and Azzabi, M. (1996). “Durability of Microfiber-Reinforced Mortars”, Cement and Concrete Research, 26(4), 601-609.
17
Rao, T.P., Mo, Y.L., Hsu, T.C. and Vogel, J. (2009). “Mechanical properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete beams”, Structures Congress, United States.
18
Rashid Dadash, P. and Ramezanianpour, A.A. (2014). “Hybrid fiber reinforced concrete containing pumice and metakaolin”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 47(2), 229-238.
19
Shadafza, E. and Jalali, R. (2016). “The elastic modulus of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) with random distribution of aggregate and fiber”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 49(1), 21-32.
20
Singh, A. (2013). “Strength and permeability characteristics of steel fiber reinforced concrete”, International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering, 7(10), 733-738.
21
Sun, W., Chen, H., Luo, X. and Qian, H. (2001). “The effect of hybrid fibers and expansive agent on the shrinkage and permeability of high-performance concrete”, Cement and Concrete Research, 31, 595-601.
22
Taherkhani, H. (2016). “Investigating the effects of nanoclay and nylon fibers on the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 49(2), 235-249.
23
Tan, K.H., Murugappan, K. and Paramasivam, P. (1993). “Shear behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete beams”, International Concrete Abstracts Portal, 90(1), 3-11.
24
Thomas, J. and Ramaswamy, A. (2007). “Mechanical Properties of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete”, 19(5), 385-392.
25
Yener, E. and Hinisliolu, S. (2011). “The effects of silica fume and fly ash on the scaling resistance and flexural strength of pavement concretes”, Road Materials and Pavement Design, 12, 177-194.
26
Zhang, P. and Li, Q. (2013). “Effect of polypropylene fiber on durability of concrete composite containing fly ash and silica fume”, Composites Part B: Engineering, 45, 1587-1594.
27
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Permeability of Two Clayey Soils Exposed to Petroleum Products and Organic Solvents
Clayey soils are the most common material used for water sealing and undertake an important role in controlling landfill-related pollution. Organic liquids can adversely affect the effectiveness of clay liners by drastically increasing their hydraulic conductivity. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the permeability in two types of clay with different plasticity, exposed to the flow of kerosene and diesel as non-polar immiscible liquids and ethanol as a miscible liquid with an intermediate dielectric constant. The effects of plasticity and water content for a given compactive effort are also investigated. Two different clayey soils with different plasticity were provided and their physical properties determined. Next, modified constant-head permeability tests were conducted on the samples. Results show that the lower dielectric constant of the organic fluids, leads to an increase in hydraulic conductivity. Research has shown that organic fluids shrink the diffuse double layer due to their lower dielectric constant and reduce its thickness. Shrinkage of the double layer leads to higher permeability and lower plasticity in the soil. As a result, the void space for the passage of the fluid increases. With the decrease the dielectric constant from 80.1 to 1.8, permeability is increased up to 1800 times. On the other hand, results show that for a clay with a higher liquid limit and plastic limit, permeability for all the liquids investigated in the research is lower.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_66130_172be9b6e612157482add14fb3122294.pdf
2018-06-01
131
146
10.7508/ceij.2018.01.008
Atterberg limits
Clay Soil
Dielectric Constant
Permeability
Plasticity
Mehran
Karimpour-Fard
karimpour_mehran@iust.ac.ir
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Guilan
LEAD_AUTHOR
Roghayeh
Alimohammadi-jelodar
arezo_mohamady68@yahoo.com
2
Faculty of Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
AUTHOR
Abdi, M.R. and Parsapazhouh, A. (2010). "Use of Bentonite and lime for decreasing the permeability of liner and cover in landfills", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 43(1), 61-70.
1
Ahangar-Asr, A., Faramarzi, A., Mottaghifard, N. and Javadi, A.A. (2011). "Modeling of permeability and compaction characteristics of soils using evolutionary polynomial regression", Computers and Geosciences, 37(11), 1860-1869.
2
Amarasinghe, P.M., Katti, K.S. and Katti, D.R. (2012). "Insight into role of clay-fluid molecular interactions on permeability and consolidation behavior of Na-montmorillonite swelling clay", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 138(2), 138-146.
3
Balaban, R.D.C., Vidal, E.L.F. and Borges, M.R. (2015). "Design of experiments to evaluate clay swelling inhibition by different combinations of organic compounds and inorganic salts for application in water base drilling fluids", Applied Clay Science, 106, 124-130.
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Benson, C.H. and Daniel, D.E. (1990). "Influence of clods on hydraulic conductivity of compacted clay", Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 116(8), 1231-1248.
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Benson, C.H. and Trast, J.M. (1995). "Hydraulic conductivity of thirteen compacted clays", Clays and Clay Minerals, 43(6), 669-681.
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Bolt, G.H. (1956). "Physicochemical analysis of the compressibility of pure clays", Géotechnique, 6(2), 86-93.
7
Chen, W.C. and Huang, W.H. (2013). "Effect of groundwater chemistry on the swelling behavior of a Ca-bentonite for deep geological repository", Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 65, 42-49.
8
Cui, S.L., Zhang, H.Y. and Zhang, M. (2012). "Swelling characteristics of compacted GMZ bentonite–sand mixtures as a buffer/backfill material in China", Engineering Geology, 141, 65-73.
9
Fernandez, F. and Quigly, R.M. (1985). "Hydraulic conductivity of natural clays permeated with simple liquid hydrocarbons", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 22(2), 205-214.
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Fernandez, F. and Quigly, R.M. (1988). "Viscosity and dielectric constant controls on the hydraulic conductivity of clayey soils permeated with water soluble organics", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 25(3), 582-589.
11
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12
Gilligan, E.D. and Clemence, S.P. (1984). "Fabric and engineering behavior of organic-saturated clays", Bulletin of the Association of the Engineering Geologists, 21, 515-529.
13
Goodarzi, A.R. and Akbari, H.R. (2014). "Assessing the anion type effect on the hydromechanical properties of smectite from macro and micro-structure aspects", Geomechanics and Engineering, 7(2), 183-200.
14
Goodarzi, A.R., Najafi Fateh, S. and Shekary, H. (2016). "Impact of organic pollutants on the macro and microstructure responses of Na-bentonite", Applied Clay Science 121-122, 17-28.
15
Lambe, T.W. (1955). "The permeability of compacted fine-grained soils", ASTM, Special Technical Publication, 163, 55-67.
16
Liang, H., Long, Z., Yang, S. and Dai, L. (2015). "Organic modification of bentonite and its effect on rheological properties of paper coating", Applied Clay Science, 104, 106-109.
17
Machado, S.L., da Silva Paes Cardoso, L., de Oliveira, I.B., de Faria Mariz, D. and Karimpour-Fard, M. (2016). "Modeling soil permeability when percolated by different soil", Transport in Porous Media, 111(3), 763-793.
18
Mesri, G. and Olson, R.E. (1971). "Mechanisms controlling the permeability of clays", Clays and Clay Minerals, 19(3), 151-158.
19
Mishra, A.K., Ohtsubo, M., Li, L. and Higashi, T. (2011). "Controlling factors of the swelling of various bentonites and their correlations with the hydraulic conductivity of soil-bentonite mixtures", Applied Clay Science, 52(1-2), 78-84.
20
Mitchell, J.K. (1976). Fundamentals of soil behavior, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
21
Mitchell, J.K., Hooper, D. and Campanella, R. (1965). "Permeability of compacted clay", Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE, 91(4), 41-65.
22
Mitchell, J.K. and Soga, K. (2005). Fundamentals of soil behavior, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey.
23
Mosavat, N. and Nalbantoglu, Z. (2013). "The impact of hazardous waste leachate on performance of clay liners", Waste Management and Research, 2(31), 194-202.
24
Mousavi, S.E. and Wong, L.S. (2016). "Permeability characteristics of compacted and stabilized clay with cement, peat ash and silica sand", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 49(1), 149-164.
25
Olgun, M. and Yildiz, M. (2012). "Influence of acid acetic on structural change and shear strength of clays", Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, 36(1), 25-38.
26
Park, A.A. and L. Fan. (2007). "Electrostatic charging phenomenon in gas–liquid–solid flow systems", Chemical Engineering Science, 62(1-2), 371-386.
27
Qiang, X., Hai-jun, L., Zhen-ze, L. and Lei, L. (2014). "Cracking, water permeability and deformation of compacted clay liners improved by straw fiber", Engineering Geology, 178, 82-90.
28
Siddiqua, S., Blatz, J. and Siemens, G. (2011). "Evaluation of the impact of pore fluid chemistry on the hydromechanical behavior of clay-based sealing materials", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 48(2), 199-213.
29
Spagnoli, G., Stanjek, H. and Sridharan, A. (2012). "Influence of ethanol/water mixture on the undrained shear strength of pure clays", Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 71(2), 389-398.
30
Van Olphen, H. (1963). "Compaction of clay sediments in the range, of molecular particle distances", Proceedings of the 11th National Conference of Clays and Clay Minerals, MacMillan Company, New York.
31
Van Olphen, H. (1991). An introduction to clay colloid chemistry: for clay technologists, geologists, and soil scientists, Krieger, Marabal, Florida.
32
Zhu, C.M., Ye, W.M., Chen, Y.G., Chen, B. and Cui, Y.J. (2013). "Inﬂuence of salt solutions on the swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity of compacted GMZ01 bentonite", Engineering Geology, 166, 74-80.
33
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
A Superelastic Retrofitting Method for Mitigating the Effects of Seismic Excitations on Irregular Bridges
Irregularities in bridge pier stiffness concentrate the ductility demand on short piers; while not operating on the longer and more flexible ones. The existence of non-uniform, ductility demand distribution in bridges significantly influences seismic response. As such, this paper proposes a new approach for balancing the ductility demand in irregular bridges by utilizing shape memory alloys (SMAs). An irregular, single column bent viaduct with unequal pier heights is modeled and used as a reference bridge. To enhance seismic behavior of the bridge, a fixed bearing at the top of the short pier is replaced by a sliding bearing and two groups of SMA bars. SMAs are designed to keep their maximum strain within the super-elastic range. The seismic response of the controlled bridge is compared with a reference bridge through parametric studies using a set of suitable ground motion records. Study parameters include SMA lengths, short pier reinforcement ratios, design strain of SMA elements, and the heights of the medium and long piers. The proposed method successfully reduced the response of the short pier and, hence, improved the overall seismic behavior.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_66131_abe5591336011b4ecb5f79ab42b1b22f.pdf
2018-06-01
147
168
10.7508/ceij.2018.01.009
Bridge
Ductility Demand
energy dissipation
Irregularity
Seismic Response
Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)
Dr. Mehdi
Ghassemieh
mghassem@ut.ac.ir
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, fahmideh st, 65178-38695 Hamedan, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Seyed Mohyedin
Ghodratian
ghodratian_sm@mehr.sharif.ir
2
School of civil engineering, Sharif University
AUTHOR
Mohammad
Khanmohmmadi
mkhan@ut.ac.ir
3
School of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran
AUTHOR
Mahmoud
Baei
m.baei@ut.ac.ir
4
School of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran
AUTHOR
Alvandi, S. and Ghassemieh, M., (2014), “Seismic evaluation of base isolated system equipped with Shape memory alloys”, Advanced Materials Research, 831, 110-114.
1
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (2007). AASHTO, AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Washington, DC.
2
Aryan, H. and Ghassemieh, M., (2014). “Mitigation of vertical and horizontal seismic excitations on bridges utilizing shape memory alloy system”, Advanced Materials Research, 831, 90-94.
3
Aryan, H. and Ghassemieh, M. (2015). “Seismic enhancement of multi-span continuous bridges subjected to three-directional excitations”, Smart Materials and Structures, 24(4), 45030.
4
Aryan, H. and Ghassemieh, M. (2017). “A superelastic protective technique for mitigating the effects of vertical and horizontal seismic excitations on highway bridges”, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 28(12), 1533-1552.
5
Baker, J.W., Lin, T., Shahi, S.K. and Jayaram, N. (2011). New ground motion selection procedures and selected motions for the PEER transportation research program, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center.
6
Brocca, M., Brinson, L.C. and Bazant, Z.P. (2002). “Three-dimensional Constitutive Model for Shape Memory Alloys Based on Microplane Model” Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 50, 1051-1077.
7
Calvi, G.M. and Pinto, P.E. (1994). “Seismic design of bridges: experimental and analytical research”, Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp. 2899-2904.
8
Farmani, M.A. and Ghassemieh, M. (2016). “Shape memory alloy-based moment connections with superior self-centering properties”, Smart Materials and Structures, 25(7), 075028.
9
Farmani, M.A. and Ghassemieh, M. (2017). “Steel beam-to-column connections equipped with SMA tendons and energy dissipating devices including shear tabs or web hourglass pins”, Journal of Steel Constructional Research, 135, 30-48.
10
Federation Internationale du Beton (FIB) (2007). Seismic bridge design and retrofit—structural solutions, FIB Bulletin 39.
11
FEMA (2009), Quantification of Building Seismic Performance Factors (FEMA P-695). Prepared by the Applied Technology Council for the Federal Emergency Management Agency Washington, DC.
12
Ghassemieh, M., Bahari, M.R., Ghodratian, S.M. and Nojoumi, S.A. (2012). “Improvement of concrete shear wall structures by smart materials”, Open Journal of Civil Engineering,2, 87-95.
13
Ghassemieh, M., Ghodratian, S.M., Bahari, M.R. and Nojoumi, S.A. (2013). “Seismic enhancement of coupled shear walls using shape memory alloys”, Journal of Civil Engineering and Science, 2(2), 93-101.
14
Ghassemieh, M., Mostafazadeh, M. and Sadeh, M.S. (2012). “Seismic control of concrete shear wall using shape memory alloys”, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 23(5), 535-543.
15
Ghassemieh, M., Rezapour, M. and Sadeghi, V. (2017). “Effectiveness of the shape memory alloy reinforcement in concrete coupled shear walls”, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 28(5), 640-652.
16
Guo, A., Zhao, Q. and Li, H. (2012). “Experimental study of a highway bridge with shape memory alloy restrainers focusing on the mitigation of unseating and pounding”, Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 11(2), 195–204.
17
Han, Y.L., Yin, H.Y., Xiao, E.T., Sun, Z.L. and Li, A.-Q. (2006). “A kind of NiTi-wire shape memory alloy damper to simultaneously damp tension, compression and torsion”, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 22(2), 241-262.
18
Isaković, T. and Fischinger, M. (2006). “Higher modes in simplified inelastic seismic analysis of single column bent viaducts”, Earthquake engineering & structural dynamics, 35(1), 95-114.
19
Isaković, T., Lazaro, M.P.N. and Fischinger, M. (2008). “Applicability of pushover methods for the seismic analysis of single-column bent viaducts”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 37(8), 1185-1202.
20
Johnson, R., Padgett, J.E., Maragakis, M.E., DesRoches, R. and Saiidi, M.S. (2008). “Large scale testing of nitinol shape memory alloy devices for retrofitting of bridges”, Smart Materials and Structures, 17(3), 035018.
21
Kappos, A.J., Manolis, G.D. and Moschonas, I.F. (2002). “Seismic assessment and design of R/C bridges with irregular configuration, including SSI effects”, Engineering Structures, 24(10), 1337-1348.
22
McKenna, (2011). “OpenSees: a framework for earthquake engineering simulation”, Computing in Science and Engineering, 13(4), 58-66.
23
Motahari, S.A., Ghassemieh, M. and Abolmaali, S.A. (2007). “Implementation of shape memory alloy dampers for passive control of structures subjected to seismic excitations”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 63(12), 1570-1579.
24
Ozbulut, O.E. and Hurlebaus, S. (2011). “Seismic assessment of bridge structures isolated by a shape memory alloy/rubber-based isolation system”, Smart Materials and Structures, 20(1), 015003.
25
Pinto, A.V., Verzeletti, G., Magonette, G., Pegon, P., Negro, P. and Guedes, J. (1996). “Pseudo-dynamic testing of large-scale R/C bridges in ELSA”, 11th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp. 23-28.
26
Roh, H., Reinhorn, A.M. and Lee, J.S. (2012). “Modeling and cyclic behavior of segmental bridge column connected with shape memory alloy bars”, Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 11(3), 375-389.
27
Saiidi, M.S. and Wang, H. (2006). “Exploratory study of seismic response of concrete columns with shape memory alloys reinforcement”, ACI Structural Journal, 103(3), 436-443.
28
Sharabash, A.M. and Andrawes, B.O. (2009). “Application of shape memory alloy dampers in the seismic control of cable-stayed bridges”, Engineering Structures, 31(2), 607-616.
29
Shrestha, K.C., Araki, Y., Nagae, T., Omori, T., Sutou, Y., Kainuma, R. and Ishida, K. (2011). “Applicability of Cu-Al-Mn shape memory alloy bars to retrofitting of historical masonry constructions”, Earthquakes and Structures, 2(3), 233-256.
30
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Analytical D’Alembert Series Solution for Multi-Layered One-Dimensional Elastic Wave Propagation with the Use of General Dirichlet Series
A general initial-boundary value problem of one-dimensional transient wave propagation in a multi-layered elastic medium due to arbitrary boundary or interface excitations (either prescribed tractions or displacements) is considered. Laplace transformation technique is utilised and the Laplace transform inversion is facilitated via an unconventional method, where the expansion of complex-valued functions in the Laplace domain in the form of general Dirichlet series is used. The final solutions are presented in the form of finite series involving forward and backward travelling wave functions of the d’Alembert type for a finite time interval. This elegant method of Laplace transform inversion used for the special class of problems at hand eliminates the need for finding singularities of the complex-valued functions in the Laplace domain and it does not need utilising the tedious calculations of the more conventional methods which use complex integration on the Bromwich contour and the techniques of residue calculus. Justification for the solutions is then considered. Some illustrations of the exact solutions as time-histories of stress or displacement of different points in the medium due to excitations of arbitrary form or of impulsive nature are presented to further investigate and interpret the mathematical solutions. It is shown via illustrations that the one-dimensional wave motions in multi-layered elastic media are generally of complicated forms and are affected significantly by the changes in the geometrical and mechanical properties of the layers as well as the nature of the excitation functions. The method presented here can readily be extended for three-dimensional problems. It is also particularly useful in seismology and earthquake engineering since the exact time-histories of response in a multi-layered medium due to arbitrary excitations can be obtained as finite sums.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_66132_105f470140bbc88bd35618751d666a1e.pdf
2018-06-01
169
198
10.7508/ceij.2018.01.010
Analytical D’alembert Solution
General Dirichlet Series
Inverse Laplace Transform
Multi-Layered
One-Dimensional
Wave Propagation
Mohamad
Emami
mohamad.emami@ut.ac.ir
1
School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
AUTHOR
Morteza
Eskandari-Ghadi
ghadi@ut.ac.ir
2
School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, I.R. Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
Achenbach, J.D., (1975). Wave propagation in elastic solids, Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Vol. 16,Amsterdam: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers.
1
Achenbach, J. D., Hemann, J. H. and Ziegler, F., (1968). "Tensile failure of interface bonds in a composite body subjected to compressive loads", AIAA Journal (The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics), 6(10), 2040-2043.
2
Ahlfors, L. V., (1966). Complex analysis, International Series in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc.
3
Apostol, T. M., (1974). Mathematical analysis. Second Edition. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.
4
Ardeshir-Behrestaghi, A., Eskandari-Ghadi, M. and Vaseghi-Amiri, J., (2013). "Analytical solution for a two-layer transversely isotropic half-space affected by an arbitrary shape dynamic surface load", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 46(1), 1-14.
5
Beddoe, B., (1966). "Vibration of a sectionally uniform string from an initial state", Journal of Sound and Vibration, 4(2), 215-223.
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Berlyand, L. and Burridge, R., (1995). "The accuracy of the O'Doherty-Anstey Approximation for wave propagation in highly disordered stratified media", Wave Motion, 21(4), 357-373.
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Boström, A., (2000). "On wave equations for elastic rods", ZAMM‐Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics/Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, 80(4), 245-51.
8
Brown, J.W. and Churchill, R.V., (2012). Fourier series and boundary value problems, Eight Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc.
9
Bruck, H.A., (2000). A one-dimensional model for designing functionally graded materials to manage stress waves", International Journal of Solids and Structures, 37(44), 6383-6395.
10
Burridge, R. (1988). "One-dimensional wave propagation in a highly discontinuous medium", Wave Motion, 10(1), 19-44.
11
Cheshmehkani, S. and Eskandari-Ghadi, M. (2017). "Three-dimensional dynamic ring load and point load Green's functions for continuously inhomogeneous viscoelastic transversely isotropic half-space", Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 76, 10-25.
12
Cheung, Y.K., Tham, L.G. and Lei, Z.X. (1995). "Transient response of single piles under horizontal excitations", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 24(7), 1017-1038.
13
Chiu, T.C. and Erdogan, F. (1999). "One-dimensional wave propagation in a functionally graded elastic medium", Journal of Sound and Vibration, 222(3), 453-487.
14
Churchill, R.V. (1936). "Temperature distribution in a slab of two layers", Duke Math Journal, 2(1), 405-414.
15
Churchill, R.V. (1937). "The inversion of Laplace transformation by a direct expansion in series and its application to boundary-value problems", Mathematische Zeitschrift, 42(1), 567-579.
16
Churchill, R.V. (1958). Operational mathematics, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill.
17
Cohen, A.M. (2007). Numerical methods for Laplace transform inversion, Springer.
18
De Hoop, A.T. (1960). "A modification of Cagniard's method for solving seismic pulse problems", Applied Scientific Research, Section B, 8(1), 349-356.
19
Duffy, D.G. (1993). 'On the numerical inversion of Laplace transforms: Comparison of three new methods on characteristic problems from applications", ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS), 19(3), 333-359.
20
Durbin, F. (1974). Numerical inversion of Laplace transforms: An efficient improvement to Dubner and Abate's method" The Computer Journal, 17(4), 371-376.
21
Eskandari-Ghadi, M., Hassanpour Charmhini, A. and Ardeshir-Behrestaghi, A. (2014). "A method of function space for vertical impedance function of a circular rigid foundation on a transversely isotropic ground", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 47(1), 13-27.
22
Eskandari-Ghadi, M., Rahimian, M., Mahmoodi, A. and Ardeshir-Behrestaghi, A. (2013). "Analytical solution for two-dimensional coupled thermoelastodynamics in a cylinder", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 46(2), 107-123.
23
Eskandari-Ghadi, M. and Sattar, S. (2009). "Axisymmetric transient waves in transversely isotropic half-space", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29, 347-355.
24
Hardy, G.H. (1915). The general theory of Dirichlet's series, Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, No. 18,Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
25
Hassani, S., (2013). Mathematical physics: A modern introduction to its foundations, 2nd Edition, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
26
Kobayashi, M.H. and Genest, R. (2014). "On an extension of the d’Alembert solution to initial–boundary value problems in multi-layered, multi-material domains", Wave Motion, 51(5), 768-784.
27
Kreyszig, E. (2011). Advanced engineering mathematics, Tenth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
28
Lang, S. (1999). Complex analysis, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 103, Fourth Edition, Springer.
29
Lin, W.H. and Daraio, C. (2016). Wave propagation in one-dimensional microscopic granular chains", Physical Review E, 94(5), 052907(1-6).
30
Macaulay, W.H. (1919). "Note on the deflection of beams. The Messenger of Mathematics, 48, 129-130.
31
O'Doherty, R.F. and Anstey, N.A. (1971). "Reflections on amplitudes", Geophysical Prospecting, 19(3), 430-458.
32
Ponge, M.F. and Croënne, C. (2016). "Control of elastic wave propagation in one-dimensional piezomagnetic phononic crystals, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 139(6), 3288-3295.
33
Raoofian Naeeni, M. and Eskandari-Ghadi, M. (2016). "A potential method for body and surface wave propagation in transversely isotropic half- and full-spaces", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 49(2), 263-288.
34
Raoofian Naeeni, M. and Eskandari-Ghadi, M. (2016). "Analytical solution of the asymmetric transient wave in a transversely isotropic half-space due to both buried and surface impulses", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 81, 42-57.
35
Shafiei, M. and Khaji, N. (2015). "An adaptive physics-based method for the solution of one-dimensional wave motion problems", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 48(2), 217-234.
36
Sneddon, I.N. (1995). Fourier transforms, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., (reprinted).
37
Thambiratnam, D.P. (1986). "Transient waves in a rod subjected to impulsive end loading", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 14(3), 475-485.
38
Van Der Hijden, J.H. (2016). Propagation of transient elastic waves in stratified anisotropic media, Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Vol. 32,Amsterdam: North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers.
39
Weinberger, H.F., (1995). A first course in partial differential equations with complex variables and transform methods, New York: Dover Publications, Inc. (reprinted).
40
Yang, H. and Yin, X. (2015). "Transient responses of girder bridges with vertical poundings under near‐fault vertical earthquake", Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 44(15), 2637-2657.
41
Yang, K. (2008). "A unified solution for longitudinal wave propagation in an elastic rod", Journal of Sound and Vibration, 314(1), 307-329.
42
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Seismic Behavior and Dissipated Plastic Energy of Performance-Based-Designed High-Rise Concrete Structures with Considering Soil–Structure Interaction Effect
Since the structure and foundation are built on soil, the soil is the major platform by which seismic vibrations are transmitted to the structure, and has noticeable effects on the response and behavior of structure during earthquakes. In this research, the recently introduced Performance-based plastic design (PBPD) and its modified Performance-based plastic design (MPBPD) method in which soil and structure interaction effect has been considered underwent the seismic evaluation. In order to do evaluation, a twenty-floor concrete structure with MPBPD method and conventional PBPD was designed and analyzed in accordance with the time history of the 22 far-field quake records. In this study, cone model is employed for modeling the soil and foundation. With a detailed three-dimensional finite element model of a twenty-story high-rise structure constructed and exploited in the OpenSees software, it is attempted to consider a more realistic behavior of the structure. The results of six related parameters with the maximum response of the structure demonstrate the efficiency and performance of the MPBPD method for the purpose of considering the SSI effect, compared with the conventional method of PBPD. The Results show that, in the MPBPD design method, maximum displacement, acceleration, inter-story drift and shear force dropped leading to a better distribution of energy in the structure compared to the PBPD method.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_66133_07b0437ede24f146b120b12d047fb3d2.pdf
2018-06-01
199
215
10.7508/ceij.2018.01.011
Performance-Based Plastic Design (PBPD)
Reinforcement Concrete Structure
Seismic Energy Dissipated
Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI)
Special Moment Frames
Hamid
Mortezaie
hamid.mortezaie@gmail.com
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, fahmideh st, 65178-38695 Hamedan, Iran
AUTHOR
Freydoon
Rezaie
freydoon.rezaie@gmail.com
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, fahmideh st, 65178-38695 Hamedan, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Abdollahzadeh, G. and Mirzagoltabar, A. (2017). "Performance-based plastic design of moment frame-steel plate shear wall as a dual system", Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 50(1), 21-34.
1
Alavi, A., Castiglioni, C.A. and Brambilla, G. (2017). "Behaviour factor evaluation of moment resisting frames having dissipative elements", CE/Papers, Special Issue: Proceedings of Eurosteel 2017, 1(2-3), 3424-3433.
2
ASCE. (2010). Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures: ASCE standard 7-10, American Society of Civil Engineers.
3
Aschheim, M. and Black, E.F. (2000). "Yield point spectra for seismic design and rehabilitation", Earthquake Spectra, 16(2), 317-336.
4
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ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Calibration of Load and Resistance Factors for Reinforced Concrete
Current approach for designing of reinforced concrete members is based on the load and resistance factor. However the load and resistance parameters are random variables, the constant values have been designated for them in the designing procedure. Assuming these factors as the constants, will be led to the unsafe and uneconomical designs. Safe designing of structures requires appropriate recognition of the effective parameters and their uncertainties. Therefore, this achievement is possible through clarifying the effective design parameters and applying risk-based design methods. The main purpose of this paper is reliability based design of the reinforcement concrete structures under bending action. Rectangular sections with tension rebars (singly reinforced), rectangular sections with tension and also compression rebars (doubly reinforced) and T-shape sections are designed based on probabilistic methods. The appropriate tool for reliability calculations is selected based on pros and cons of each method. Evaluation of the load and the resistance factors for all mentioned beams is the next goal of this investigation. In this research, the steel usages for desired safety level are determined through the produced graphs. Using the proposed methodologies, the economic and fully probabilistic design of the concrete beams for bending is now available.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_66134_90e5f7e180491280e6ff45353078b6a1.pdf
2018-06-01
217
227
10.7508/ceij.2018.01.012
Load and Resistance Factors
Monte-Carlo simulation
Reinforced Concrete Beam
Reliability-Based Design
Safety Factor
Jala
Akbari
jalal.akbari@gmail.com
1
Malayer University
LEAD_AUTHOR
Faezeh
Jafari
f.jaefari556@yahoo.com
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Malayer University
AUTHOR
Arab, H.G., Ghasemi, M.R., Rashki, M. and Miri, M. (2013). “Enhancing weighted uniform simulation for structural reliability analysis”, International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering, 3(4), 635-651.
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