ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Analytical Solution for Two-Dimensional Coupled Thermoelastodynamics in a Cylinder
An infinitely long hollow cylinder containing isotropic linear elastic material is considered under the effect of arbitrary boundary stress and thermal condition. The two-dimensional coupled thermoelastodynamic PDEs are specified based on equations of motion and energy equation, which are uncoupled using Nowacki potential functions. The Laplace integral transform and Bessel-Fourier series are used to derive the solution for the potential functions, and then the displacements-, stresses- and temperature-potential relationships are used to determine the displacements, stresses and temperature fields. It is shown that the formulation presented here are identically collapsed on the solution existed in the literature for simpler case of axissymetric configuration. A numerical procedure is needed to evaluate the displacements, stresses and temperature at any point and any time. The numerical inversion method proposed by Durbin is applied to evaluate the inverse Laplace transforms of different functions involved in this paper. For numerical inversion, there exist many difficulties such as singular points in the integrand functions, infinite limit of the integral and the time step of integration. With a very precise attention, the desired functions have been numerically evaluated and shown that the boundary conditions have been satisfied very accurately. The numerical evaluations are graphically shown to make engineering sense for the problem involved in this paper for different case of boundary conditions. The results show the wave velocity and the time lack of receiving stress waves. The effect of temperature boundary conditions are shown to be somehow oscillatory, which is used in designing of such an elements.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40489_ba3890ac0ca4f37b332b7c85d6009ac0.pdf
2013-12-01
107
123
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.001
Bessel-Fourier Series
Coupled Thermoelasticity
Laplace transform
Numerical Inversion
Potential Functions
Series Expansion
Singular Points
Morteza
Eskandari-Ghadi
ghadi@ut.ac.ir
1
University of Tehran, Collage of Engineering, Dept. of Engineering Science
LEAD_AUTHOR
Mohammad
Rahimian
rahimian@ut.ac.ir
2
Collage of Civil Eng., Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
AUTHOR
Amin
Mahmoodi
mahmoudi.am@gmail.com
3
Collage of Civil Eng., Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
AUTHOR
Azizollah
Ardeshir-Behrestaghi
ardeshir_b_eng@yahoo.com
4
PhD candidate, Faculty of Civil Eng., Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran,
AUTHOR
Biot, M.A. (1956). “Thermoelasticity and irreversible thermodynamics”, Journal of Applied Physics, 27, 240-253.
1
Carlson, D.E. (1972). “Linear thermoelasticity”, In S.(ed.), Handbuch der Physik, Vol. Via/2, Mechanics of Solids II, (ed.) C. Truesdell, 1-295. Springer, Berlin.
2
Cohen, A.L. (2007). Numerical methods for Laplace transform inversion, Springer, New York.
3
Deresiewicz, H. (1958). “Solution of the equations of thermoelasticity”, Proceedings of 3rd United States National Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Brown University, 287-291.
4
Dubrin, F. (1973). “Numerical inversion of laplace transform: an efficient improvement to dubner and abate’s method”, Commissariat a I’Energie Centre U-Service Electronique the Computer Journal, 17(4), 371-376.
5
Eslami, M. and Vahedi, H. (1992). “Galerkin finite element displacement formulation of coupled thermoelasticity spherical problems”, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 114, 380-384
6
Gurtin, M.E. (1972). “The linear theory of elasticity”, In S.(ed.), Handbuch der Physik, Vol. Via/2, Mechanics of Solids II, (ed.) C. Truesdell, 1-295. Springer, Berlin.
7
Kellogg, O.D. (1953). Foundation of Potential Theory, Dover Publications Inc.
8
Li, Y.Y., Ghoneim, H. and Chen, Y.A. (1983). “A numerical method in solving a coupled thermoelasticity equations and some results”, Journal of Thermal Stresses, 6, 253-280.
9
Lykotrafitisa, G. and Georgiadis, H.G. (2003). “The three-dimensional steady-state thermo-elastodynamic problem of moving sources over a half space”, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 40(4), 899-940.
10
Mc Quillen, E.J. and Brull, M.A. (1970). “Dynamic thermoelastic response of cylindrical shells”, Journal of applied Mechanics, 37(3), 661-670.
11
Nickell, R.E. and Sackman, J.L. (1968). “Approximate solution in linear coupled thermoelasticity”, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 35(2), 255-266.
12
Nowacki, W. (1959). “Some dynamical problem of thermoelasticity”, Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis, 11, 39-46.
13
Nowacki, W. (1964a). “Green functions for the thermoelastic medium”, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences - Technical Sciences, 12, 315-321.
14
Nowacki, W. (1964b). “Green functions for the thermoelastic medium”, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences - Technical Sciences, 12, 465-472.
15
Nowacki, W. (1967). “On the completeness of stress functions in thermoelasticity”, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences - Technical Sciences, 15, 583-591
16
Nowacki, W. (1986). Thermoelasticity, 2nd Edition, Pergamon Press.
17
Rahimian, M., Eskandari-Ghadi, M. and Heidarpoor, A. (1999a). “Solving coupled thermoelasticity problems in cylindrical coordinates, part 1: analitical solution”, Journal of Engineering Faculty, University of Tehran, 32(1), 51-56 (in Persian).
18
Rahimian, M., Eskandari-Ghadi, M. and Heidarpoor, A. (1999b). “Solving coupled thermoelasticity problems in cylindrical coordinates, part 2: numerical solution”, Journal of Engineering Faculty, University of Tehran, 32(1), 57-70 (in Persian).
19
Sneddon, I. N. (1951). Fourier transforms, McGraw-Hill, New York, N. Y.
20
Tei-Chen, Chen and Cheng-I, Weng. (1989). “Coupled transient thermoelastic response in an axi-symmetric circular cylinder by laplace transform-finite element method”, Computers and Structures, 33(2), 533-542.
21
Zorski, H. (1958). “Singular solutions for thermoelastic media”, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences - Technical Sciences, 6, 331-339.
22
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
A Study of the Rockfill Material Behavior in Large-Scale Tests
Inspecting the behavior of the rockfill materials is of significant importance in analysis of rockfill dams. Since the dimensions of grains in such materials are greater than the conventional sizes suitable for soil mechanics tests, it is necessary to experimentally study them in specific large-scale apparatuses. In this research, the behavior of rockfill materials in two large rockfill dams constructed in northwest of Iran were studied using large-scale direct shear and triaxial tests. Various indices regarding the quantity of particle breakage in rockfill materials were assessed for both dams and an experimental correlation has been proposed between the Los Angeles Abrasion Value and internal friction angle of rockfill material. Also, the effect of surcharge intensity, grain size distribution and degree of compaction on the shear strength of rockfill material for both dams was studied. The findings indicate that increase in particle breakage leads to reduction of internal friction angle. Also, for a specific sample the particle breakage index increases with an increase in surcharge, percentage of gravel and degree of compaction.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40500_f4a46a825011e062489983fe55f6120c.pdf
2013-12-01
125
143
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.002
Direct Shear Test
Los Angeles Abrasion
Particle Breakage
Rockfill
Triaxial Test
Ali
Ghanbari
ghanbari@tmu.ac.ir
1
Associate professor of civil engineering, Kharazmi University
LEAD_AUTHOR
Amir
Hamidi
hamidi@tmu.ac.ir
2
Associate professor Kharazmi University
AUTHOR
Naseh
Abdolahzadeh
naseh86@gmail.com
3
Researcher Student, Kharazmi University
AUTHOR
Brauns, J. and Kast, K. (1991). “Laboratory testing and quality control of rockfill- german practice”, Advances in Rockfill Structures, NATO ASI Series, 195-219.
1
Cambridge, M. (2008). “Implications of pyritic rockfill on performance of embankment dams”, Dams and Reservoirs, 18(2), 63-69.
2
Charles, J.A. and Walts, K.S. (1980). “The influence of confining pressure on the shear strength of compacted rockfill”, Geotechnique, 30(4), 353-367.
3
Delgado Rodrigues, J. (1991). Physical characterization and assessment of rock durability through index properties, Chapter 2, Advances in Rockfill Structures, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, NATO ASI Series, 200, 7-33.
4
Ghanbari, A., Sadeghpour, A.H., Mohamadzadeh, H. and Mohamadzadeh, M. (2008). “An experimental study on the behavior of rockfill material using large scale tests”, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 13, Bundle G. 1-16.
5
Gupta, A. (2009). “Effect of particle size and confining pressure on breakage and strength parameters of rockfill material”, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 14, Bundle H. 1-12.
6
Hamidi, A., Yazdanjou, V. and Salimi, S.N. (2009). “Shear strength characteristics of sand-gravel mixtures”, International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 3(1), 29-38.
7
Hamidi, A., Salimi, S.N. and Yazdanjou, V. (2011). “Gravel particles shape and size effects on shear strength characteristics of fine sands”, Scientific Quarterly Journal of Geosciences, 20(80), 189-196.
8
Hazen, A. (1911). Discussion of “dams on sand foundation”, by A. C. Koenig, Transactions, American Society of Civil Engineers, 73, 199.
9
Indraratna, B., Wijewardena, L.S.S. and Balasubramaniam , A.S. (1993). “Large –scale triaxial testing of greywacke rockfill”, Geotechnique, London, U.K. 43(1), 37-51.
10
Indraratna, B., Ionescu, and Christie, H.D. (1998). “Shear behavior of railway ballast based on large –scale triaxial tests”, ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, 124(5), 439-449.
11
Indraratna, B. and Salim, W. (2002). “Modelling of particle breakage of coarse aggregates incorporating strength and dilatancy”, Proceedings of the ICE - Geotechnical Engineering, 155(4), 243 –252.
12
Kim, Bum-joo. (2005). “Shear strength and one-dimension compression characteristics of granitic gneiss rockfill dam material”, 21(7), 31- 42.
13
Lade, P.V. (1996). “Significance of particle breakage in granular material”, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 122(4), 309-316.
14
Lee. K. and Farhoomand, I. (1967). “Compressibility and breakage of granular soil in anisotropic triaxial compression”, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, IV(1), 68-86.
15
Leslie, D.D. (1963). “Large scale triaxial tests on granular soils”, Proceeding of the 2nd Pan-American Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Brazil, 1, 181-202.
16
Leslie, D.D. (1975). “Shear strength of rockfill. physical properties engineering study”, South Pacific Division Corps of Engineers Laboratory, 526, 124, 1975.
17
Marsal, R.J. (1967). “Discussion of shear strength”, Proceedingof the 6th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 3, 310-316.
18
Parkin, A.K. (1991). “Rockfill modeling”, Advances in Rockfill Structures, NATO ASI Series, 35-51.
19
Varadarajan, A., Sharma, K.G., Venkatachalam, K. and Gupta, A.K. (2003). “Testing and modeling two rockfill material”, ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical and Geoenviromental Engineering, 129(3), 206-218.
20
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Safety Analysis of the Patch Load Resistance of Plate Girders: Influence of Model Error and Variability
This study aims to undertake a statistical study to evaluate the accuracy of nine models that have been previously proposed for estimating the ultimate resistance of plate girders subjected to patch loading. For each model, mean errors and standard errors, as well as the probability of underestimating or overestimating patch load resistance, are estimated and the resultant values are compared one to another. Prior to that, the models are initially calibrated in order to improve interaction formulae using an experimental data set collected from the literature. The models are then analyzed by computing design factors associated with a target risk level (probability of exceedance). These models are compared one to another considering uncertainties existed in material and geometrical properties. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate random variables. The statistical parameters of the calibrated models are calculated for various coefficients of variations regardless of their correlation with the random resistance variables. These probabilistic results are very useful for evaluating the stochastic sensitivity of the calibrated models.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40501_91476e2d55d97b70accc39c3349c9bb3.pdf
2013-12-01
145
160
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.003
Calibration
Monte Carlo
Patch Loading
Plate Girder
Uncertainty
Farzad
Shahabian
fshahabianm@yahoo.com
1
Academic staff
LEAD_AUTHOR
Sidi Mohammed
Elachachi
sidi-mohammed.elachachi@ u-bordeaux1.fr
2
academic staff
AUTHOR
Denys
Breysse
denis.breysse@ u-bordeaux1.fr
3
Academic staff
AUTHOR
Chacón, R., Bock, M. and Real, E. (2011). "Longitudinally stiffened hybrid steel plate girders subjected to patch loading", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67(9), 1310-1324.
1
Chacón, R., Mirambell, E. and Real, E. (2010). "Hybrid steel plate girders subjected to patch loading, part 1: numerical study", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 66(5), 695-708.
2
Chacón, R., Mirambell, E. and Real, E. (2013). "Transversally stiffened plate girders subjected to patch loading. part 1. preliminary study", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 80, 483-491.
3
Chaves, I.A., Beck, A.T. and Malite, M. (2010). "Reliability-based evaluation of design guidelines for cold-formed steel-concrete composite beams", Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 32, 442-449.
4
Davaine, L. and Aribert, J. (2005). "Launching of steel girder bridge - patch load resistance of longitudinally stiffened webs", Proceedings of 4th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures, Maastricht, The Netherlands, June 8-10.
5
Der Kiureghian, A. And Ditlevsen, O. (2009). "Aleatory or epistemic? does it matter?", Structural Safety, 31(2), 105-117.
6
Graciano, C. and Casanova, E. (2005). "Ultimate strength of longitudinally stiffened i-girder webs subjected to combined patch loading and bending", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 61(1), 93-111.
7
Gracino, C., Casanova, E. and Martinez, J. (2011). "Imperfection sensitivity of plate girder webs subjected to patch loading", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67(7), 1128-1133.
8
Graciano, C. and Johansson, B. (2003). "Resistance of longitudinally stiffened i-girders subjected to to concentrated loads", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 59(5), 561-586.
9
JCSS. (2001-2). Probabilistic Model Code. Part 3: Resistance Models, Structural Steel, 3.02, http://www.jcss.byg.dtu.dk/Publications/Probabilistic_Model_Code.
10
Kala, Z. (2005). "Sensitivity analysis of the stability problems of thin-walled structures", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 61(3), 415-422.
11
Kala, Z. and Kala, J. (2010). "Resistance of thin-walled plate girders under combines bending and shear", WSEAS Transactions on Applied and Theoretical Mechanics, 4(5), 242-252.
12
Kuhlmann, U., Mirambell, E., Chacón, R. and Braun, B. (2012). "Statistical evaluation of the new resistance model for steel plate girders subjected to patch loading", Steel Construction Steel Construction, 5(1), 10-15.
13
Kutmanova, I. and Skaloud, M. (1992). "Ultimate limit state of slender steel webs subject to (i) constant an (ii) repeated partial edge loading", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 21(1-3), 147-162.
14
Lagerqvist, O. and Johansson, B. (1996). "Resistance of i-girders to concentrated loads", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 39(2), 87-119.
15
Liu, H. And Chen, W. (2004). "Probabilistic sensitivity analysis methods for design under uncertainty", 10th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, Albany, New York, 30-31Aug, 1-4.
16
Markovic, N. and Hajdin, N. (1992). "A contribution to the analysis of the behavior of plate girders subjected to patch loading", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 21(1-3), 163-173.
17
McCabe, M.F., Franks, S.W. and Kalma, J.D. (2005). "Calibration of a land surface model using multiple data sets", Journal of Hydrology, 302(1-4), 209-222.
18
Paola, M.D. (2004). "Probabilistic analysis of truss structures with uncertain parameters (virtual distortion method approach)", Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 19(4), 321-329.
19
Radlinska, A., Pease, B. and Weiss, J. (2007). "A preliminary numerical investigation on the influence of material variability in the early-age cracking behavior of restrained concrete", Materials and Structures, 40(4), 375–386.
20
Rattanapitikon, W. (2007). "Calibration and modification of energy dissipation models for irregular wave breaking", Ocean Engineering, 34(11), 1592-1601.
21
Roberts, T.M. and Newark, A.C.B. (1997). "Strength of webs subjected to compressive edge loading", Journal of Structural Engineering, 123(2), 176-183.
22
Roberts, T.M. and Rockey, K.C. (1979). "A mechanism solution for predicting the collapse loads of slender plate girders when subjected to in-plane loading", Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 2(67), 155-175.
23
Roberts, T.M. and Shahabian, F. (2000). "Ultimate resistance of slender web panels to combined bending shear and patch loading", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 57(7), 779-790.
24
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Predicting Deficient Condition Performance of Water Distribution Networks
A water distribution network is subjected to various abnormal conditions such as pipe breaks, pump failures, excessive demands etc. in the design period. Under such conditions, the network may not be able to meet required demands at desired pressures, and becomes deficient. Traditional network analysis assumes nodal demands to be satisfied and available nodal pressures are calculated. However, assumption that demands are satisfied at all nodes is not true under deficient conditions. Therefore, under deficient conditions nodal demands and pressures are considered simultaneously through head-flow relationships to calculate available nodal flows. This type of analysis that determines available flows is termed as node flow analysis or pressure-driven or dependent wherein, outflows are considered as function of available pressure. Various node head-flow relationships (NHFR) have been suggested by researchers to correlate available flow and available pressure based on required flow and required pressure. Methods using these NHFRs have been classified herein as direct and indirect approaches. Applications of these approaches have been shown with two illustrative examples and results are compared.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40502_a0cef8d06e5287ef71d39da6a44c1477.pdf
2013-12-01
161
173
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.004
Node Flow Analysis
Pressure-Dependent Analysis
Water distribution networks
Rajesh
Gupta
drrajeshgupta123@hotmail.com
1
B.E. (Civil), M. Tech. (Env.), Ph.D.
LEAD_AUTHOR
Mohd Abbas
Abdy Sayyed
abbas_vnit@yahoo.co.in
2
B.E. (Civil), M. Tech (Env.)
AUTHOR
Ang, W.K. and Jowitt, P.W. (2006). “Solution for water distribution systems under pressure-deficient conditions”, J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 132(3), 175-182.
1
Bhave, P.R. (1981). "Node flow analysis of water distribution systems", J. Transportation Engineering, ASCE, 107(4), 457-467.
2
Bhave, P.R. (1985). "Rapid convergence in hardy cross method of network analysis", J. Indian Water Works Association, 16(1), 1-5.
3
Bhave, P.R. (1991). Analysis of flow in water distribution networks, Technomic Pub. Co., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA
4
Bhave, P.R. (2003). Optimal design of water distribution networks, Alpha Science International Ltd., Pangbourne, England.
5
Bhave, P.R. and Gupta, R. (2006). Analysis of Water Distribution Networks, Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India.
6
Chandapillai, J. (1991). “Realistic simulation of water distribution systems”, J. Transportation Engineering, ASCE, 117(2), 258-263.
7
Fujiwara, O. and Ganesharajah, T. (1993). "Reliability assessment of water supply systems with storage and distribution networks", J. Water Resources Research, 29(8), 2917-2924.
8
Fujiwara, O. and Li, J. (1988). "Reliability analysis of water distribution networks in consideration of equity, redistribution, and pressure dependent demand", J. Water Resources Research, 34(7), 1843-1850.
9
Germanopoulos, G. (1985). “A technical note on the inclusion of pressure dependent demand and leakage terms in water supply network models”, Civil Engineering Systems, 2(3), 171-179.
10
GiustolisiO. and Laucelli D. (2011). “Water distribution network pressure-driven analysis using the enhanced global gradient algorithm (EGGA)”, J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 137(6), 498-510.
11
Gupta, R. and Bhave, P.R. (1994). "Reliability analysis of water distribution systems", J. Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 120(2), 447-460.
12
Gupta, R. and Bhave, P.R. (1996a). "Reliability-based design of water distribution systems", J. Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 122(1), 51-54.
13
Gupta, R. and Bhave, P.R. (1996b). “Comparison of methods for predicting deficient network performance", J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 122(3), 214-217.
14
Gupta, R. and Bhave, P. R. (2004). “Comments on ‘redundancy model for water distribution systems’ by P. Kalungi and T.T. Tanyimboh”, Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 86(3), 331-333.
15
Gupta, R. and Bhave, P.R. (2004). “Redundancy-based strengthening and expansion of water distribution networks”, Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Hydroinformatics, Singapore.
16
Gupta, R., Awale, A., Markam, A. and Bhave, P.R. (2005). “Node flow analysis of water distribution networks using gradient method”, Proceedings of National Conference on Advances in Water Engineering for Sustainable Development, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 207-214.
17
Jinesh Babu, K.S. and Mohan S. (2012). “Extended period simulation for pressure-deficient water distribution network”, J. Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 26(4), 498-505.
18
Kalungi, P. and Tanyimboh T.T. (2003). “Redundancy model for water distribution systems”, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 82(3), 275-286.
19
Ozger, S.S. and Mays, L.W. (2003). “A semi-pressure-driven approach to reliability assessment of water distribution networks”, Proceedings of 30th IAHR World Congress, Thessaloniki, 345-352.
20
Rossman, L.A. (2000). EPANET user’s manual, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati.
21
Tabesh, M., Tanyimboh, T.T. and Burrows, R. (2002). “Head-driven simulation of water supply networks”, International J. Engineering, 15(1), 11-22.
22
Tahar, B., Tanyimboh, T.T. and Templeman, A.B. (2002). “Pressure-dependent modelling of water distribution systems”, Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Decision Making in Urban and Civil Engineering, London.
23
Todini, E. (2003). “A more realistic approach to the extended period simulation of water distribution networks”, Advances in Water Supply Management, Maksimovic, C., Butler, D. and Memon, F.A. (Eds.), Swets and Zeitlinger Publishers, Balkema, Lisse, The Netherlands, 173-184.
24
Wagner, J.M., Shamir, U. and Marks, D.H. (1988). “Water distribution reliability: simulation method”, J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 114(3), 276-294.
25
Wu, Z.Y., Wang, R.H., Walski, T.M., Yang, S.Y., Bowdler, D. and Baggett, C.C. (2009). “Extended global-gradient algorithm for pressure-dependent water distribution analysis”, J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 135(1), 13-22.
26
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Seismic Behavior Evaluation of Concrete Elevated Water Tanks
Elevated tanks are important structures in storing vital products, such as petroleum products for cities and industrial facilities, as well as water storage. These structures have various types and are constructed in a way that a greater portion of their weight is concentrated at an elevation much about the base. Damage to these structures during strong ground motions may lead to fire or other hazardous events. In this research, a reinforced concrete elevated water tank, with 900 cubic meters capacity, exposed to three pairs of earthquake records was analyzed in time history using mechanical and finite-element modeling techniques. The liquid mass of the tank was modeled as lumped mass known as sloshing mass, or impulsive mass. The corresponding stiffness constants associated with the lumped mass were determined depending upon the properties of the tank wall and liquid mass. Tank responses including base shear, overturning moment, tank displacement, and sloshing displacement were also calculated. Obtained results revealed that the system responses are highly influenced by the structural parameters and the earthquake characteristics such as frequency content.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40503_f389bfd6bed6a5e55cacb799fcfe9f90.pdf
2013-12-01
175
188
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.005
Base Shear
Earthquake Characteristics
Fluid-Structure Interaction
Overturning Moment
Seismic Behavior
Sloshing Displacement
Saeed
Bozorgmehrnia
bozorgmehr@semnan.ac.ir
1
faculty of engineering, guilan university
LEAD_AUTHOR
Malek Mohammad
Ranjbar
mmranjbar@gmail.com
2
faculty of engineering, guilan university
AUTHOR
Rahmat
Madandoust
rmadandoust@guilan.ac.ir
3
faculty of engineering, guilan university
AUTHOR
Barton, D.C. and Parker, J.V. (1987). “Finite element analysis of the seismic response of anchored and unanchored liquid storage tanks”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 15, 299 –322.
1
Dogangun, A. and Livaoglu, R. (2004). “Hydrodynamic pressures acting on the walls of rectangular fluid containers”, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 17, 203–214.
2
Dogangun, A., Durmus, A. and Ayvaz, Y. (1996). “Finite element analysis of seismic response of rectangular tanks using added mass and lagrangian approach”, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Civil Engineering Computer Applications Research and Practice, Bahrain, April 6–8, I, 371–379.
3
Dogangun, A., Durmus, A. and Ayvaz, Y. (1996). “Static and dynamic analysis of rectangular tanks by using the lagrangian fluid finite element”, Computers and Structures, 59, 547–552.
4
Donea, J., Gıuliani, S. and Halleux, J.P. (1982). “An arbitrary lagrangian–eulerian finite element method for transient dynamic fluid-structure interaction”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 33, 689–723.
5
Dutta, S.C., Jain, S.K. and Murty, C.V.R. (2000). “Assessing the seismic torsional vulnerability of elevated tanks with rc frame-type staging”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 19, 183–197.
6
Dutta, S., Mandal, A. and Dutta, S.C. (2004). “Soil–structure interaction in dynamic behavior of elevated tanks with alternate frame staging configurations”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 227(4-5), 825-853.
7
Dutta, S.C., Jain, S.K. and Murty, C.V.R. (2001). “Inelastic seismic torsional behavior of elevated tanks”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 242(1), 151–167.
8
Dutta, S.C., Jain, S.K. and Murty, C.V.R. (2000). “Alternate tank staging configurations with reduced torsional vulnerability”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 19, 199–215.
9
Haroun, M.A. and Termaz, M.K. (1992). “Effects of soil-structure interaction effects on seismic response of elevated tanks”, Soil Dynamics Earthquake Engineering, 11(2), 37-86.
10
Housner, G.W. (1963). “Dynamic behavior of water tanks”, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of the America, 53, 381–387.
11
Kwak, H.G. and Filippou, F.C. (1990). “Finite element analysis of reinforced concrete structures under monotonic loads”, Report No. UCB/SEMM-90/14, University of California at Berkeley, CA.
12
Livaoglu, R. (2005). “Investigation of the earthquake behavior of elevated tanks considering fluid–structure–soil interactions”, Ph.D. Thesis, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, (in Turkish).
13
Livaoglu, R. and Dogangun, A. (2005). “Seismic evaluation of fluid-elevated tank-foundation/soil systems in frequency domain”, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 21, 101–119.
14
Livaoglu, R. and Dogangun, A. (2006). “Simplified seismic analysis procedures for elevated tanks considering fluid-structure-soil interaction”, J. Fluids Structure, 22(3), 421–39.
15
Livaoglu, R. and Dogangun, A. (2007) “Effect of foundation embedment on seismic behavior of elevated tanks considering fluid–structure-soil interaction”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 27, 855–863.
16
Malhotra, P.K., Wenk, T. and Weiland, M. (2000). “Simple procedure of seismic analysis of liquid-storage tanks”, Journal of Structural Engineering International, IABSE 10 (3), 197–201.
17
Marashi, E.S. and Shakib, H. (1997). “Evaluations of dynamic characteristics of elevated water tanks by ambient vibration tests”, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Civil Engineering, Tehran, Iran, I, 367–73.
18
Minowa, C. (1980). “Dynamic analysis for rectangular water tanks”, Recent Advanced Lifeline Earthquake Engineering, Japan, 7, 135–142.
19
Olson, L.G. and Bathe, K.J. (1983). “A study of displacement-based fluid finite elements for calculating frequencies of fluid and fluid–structure systems”, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 76, 137–151.
20
Park, R., Kent, D.C. and Sampton, R.A. (1972). “Reinforced concrete members with cyclic loading”, Journal of the Structural Division ASCE., 98(7), 1341–60.
21
Reshidat, R.M. and Sunna, H. (1986). “Behavior of elevated storage tanks during earthquake”, Proceeding of the 3rd US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Charleston, South Carolina, 4, 2143-2154.
22
Rezaiee-Pajand, M. and Moghaddasie, B. (2013). “Determination of stability domains for nonlinear dynamical systems using the weighted residuals method”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, 46(1), 27–50.
23
Scott, B.D., Park, R. and Priestley, M.J.N. (1982). “Stress-strain behavior of concrete confined by overlapping hoops at low and high strain rates”, American Concrete Institute (ACI), 79(1), 13–27.
24
Wilson, E.L. and Khalvati, M. (1983). “Finite elements for the dynamic analysis of fluid-solid systems”, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 19, 1657–1668.
25
Zienkiewicz, O.C. and Bettes, P. (1978). “Fluid-structure dynamic interaction and wave forces; an introduction to numerical treatment”, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 13, 1–16.
26
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Numerical Simulation of Free Surface in the Case of Plane Turbulent Wall Jets in Shallow Tailwater
Wall-jet flow is an important flow field in hydraulic engineering, and its applications include flow from the bottom outlet of dams and sluice gates. In this paper, the plane turbulent wall jet in shallow tailwater is simulated by solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations using the standard turbulence closure model. This study aims to explore the ability of a time splitting method on a non-staggered grid in curvilinear coordinates for simulation of two-dimensional (2D) plane turbulent wall jets with finite tailwater depth. In the developed model, the kinematic free-surface boundary condition is solved simultaneously with the momentum and continuity equations, so that the water surface elevation can be obtained along with the velocity and pressure fields as part of the solution. 2D simulations are carried out for plane turbulent wall jets free surface in shallow tailwater. The comparison undertaken between numerical results and experimental measurements show that the numerical model can capture the velocity field and the drop in the water surface elevation at the gate with reasonable accuracy.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40504_d0911f69228cc3f703e1c4f40301e40e.pdf
2013-12-01
189
198
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.006
Numerical simulation
Free Surface
Shallow Tailwater
Turbulent Flow
Water Jets
Mitra
Javan
javanmi@gmail.com
1
1 School of Civil Engineering The University of Razi Kermanshah, Tagh Bostan IRAN
LEAD_AUTHOR
Afshin
Eghbalzadeh
afeghbal@razi.ac.ir
2
School of Civil Engineering The University of Razi Kermanshah, Tagh Bostan IRAN
AUTHOR
Masoud
Montazeri Namin
mnamin@ut.ac.ir
3
School of Civil Engineering The University of Tehran Tehran, 16 Azar St., Enghelab Ave. IRAN
AUTHOR
Albertson, M.L., Dai, Y.B., Jenson, R.A. and Rouse, H. (1950). “Diffusion of submerged jets”, Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineer, 115, 639–664.
1
Ead, S.A. and Rajaratnam, N. (1998). “Double-leaf gate for energy dissipation below regulators”, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 124(11), 1134–1145.
2
Ead, S.A. and Rajaratnam, N. (2001). “Plane turbulent surface jets in shallow tailwater”, Journal of Fluids Engineering, 123, 121–127.
3
Ead, S.A. and Rajaratnam, N. (2002). “Plane turbulent wall jets in shallow tailwater”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 128(2), 143-155.
4
Eriksson, J.G., Karlsson, R.I. and Persson, J. (1998). “An experimental study of a two-dimensional plane turbulent wall jet”, Experiments in Fluids, 25(1), 50–60.
5
Goldschmidt, V. and Eskinazi, S. (1966). “Two phase turbulent flow in a plane jet”, Transactions ASME, Series E, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 33(4), 735–747.
6
Heskestad, G. (1965). “Hot wire measurements in a plane turbulent jet”, Transactions ASME, Series E, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 32(4), 721–734.
7
Javan, M., Montazeri Namin, M. and Salehi Neyshabouri, S.A.A. (2007). “A time-splitting method on a non-staggered grid in curvilinear coordinates for implicit simulation of non-hydrostatic free-surface flows”, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 34(1), 99-106.
8
Kechiche, K., Mhiri, H., Palec, G.L. and Philippe, B. (2004) “Application of low reynolds number turbulence models to the study of turbulent wall jets”, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 43, 201–211.
9
Khosronejad, A. and Rennie, C.D. (2010). “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of unconfined and confined wall-jet flow with two different turbulence models”, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 37(4), 576–587.
10
Kim, J. and Moin, P. (1985). “Application of a fractional-step method to incompressible navier-stokes equations”, Journal of Computational Physics, 59, 308-323.
11
Kotsovinos, N.E. (1975). “A study of the entrainment and turbulence in a plane turbulent jet”, California Institute of Technology, Rep. KH R-32, W. M. Keck Laboratory of Hydrology and Water Resources, Pasadena, California.
12
Launder, B.E. and Rodi, W. (1981). “The turbulent wall jet”, Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 19, 81–128.
13
Miller, D.R. and Comings, E.W. (1957). “Static pressure distribution in the free turbulent jet”, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 3(1), 1–16.
14
Montazeri Namin, M., Lin, B. and Falconer, R.A. (2001). “An implicit numerical algorithm for solving non-hydrostatic free-surface flow problems”, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Fluids, 35, 341-356.
15
Rajaratnam, N. (1976). Turbulent jets, Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 304p.
16
Rhie, C.M. and Chow, W.L. (1983). “Numerical study of the turbulent flow past an airfoil with trailing edge separation”, AIAA Journal, 21, 1525-1532.
17
Rodi, W. (1993). Turbulence models and their applications in hydraulics - A state-of-arts review, IAHR Monograph, Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
18
Shojaeefard, M.H., Goudarzi, K. and Jahromi, H.G. (2007) “Numerical simulation of 2D turbidity currents and wall jet”, American Journal of Applied Sciences, 4(11), 880-886.
19
Swean, T.F.Jr., Ramberg, S.E., Plesniak, M.W. and Stewart, M.B. (1989). “Turbulent surface jet in channel of limited depth”, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 115(12), 1587–1606.
20
Wu, S. and Rajaratnam, N. (1995). “Free jumps, submerged jumps and wall jets”, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 33(2), 197–212.
21
Wu, W., Rodi, W. and Wenka, T. (2000). “3D numerical modelling of flow and sediment transport in open channels”, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 126(1), 4–15.
22
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Effect of Crest Roughness on Flow Characteristics over Circular Weirs
Different construction materials with different roughness used to make circular weirs highly affect surface roughness and, in turn, flow hydraulics passing over these structures. In the present research, numerous experiments under different hydraulic conditions were performed on a physical model to study the effects of roughness on flow hydraulics over a circular weir. The flow hydraulics included velocity profile, discharge coefficient and longitudinal water surface profile. The actual water surface elevation and velocity profile at different cross sections were measured using a point gauge and micro current meter, respectively. About 200 experimental tests were performed on a circular weir made of polyethylene with 29.5 cm height, 30cm wide, and 7.5 cm radius. The results showed that for a constant discharge, as the weir surface roughness increases the upstream water level over the weir increases and the discharge coefficient reduces. The velocity profile at upstream sections of the weir crest is extremely different from that over the weir crest while the velocity profile at downstream sections of the weir crest follows the same pattern as those experienced at the weir crest. Also, the increased roughness makes the velocity profile over the weir more uniform, with a higher average velocity. Finally the effects of roughness on velocity values are less near weir in comparison with water surface.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40505_8a0a0f8ac6de7f8c06d2973715743b90.pdf
2013-12-01
199
207
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.007
discharge coefficient
Experimental Test
Relative Roughness
Velocity profile
Rasoul
Ghobadian
rsghobadian@gmail.com
1
Hydraulic Structures
LEAD_AUTHOR
Ali
Fattahi
ali.fattahi.ch2@gmail.com
2
Water Resource Engineering
AUTHOR
Milad
Farmanifard
milad.farmanifard2@gmail.com
3
Young Researchers Club, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University
AUTHOR
Arash
Ahmadi
arash.ahmadi2292@yahoo.com
4
Water Civil Engineering
AUTHOR
Bazin, H. (1898). “Recent experiments on the flow of water over weirs”, Mémoireset Documents, Annales des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris, France, Sér. 7, 15, 2nd Sem, 151-264.
1
Chanson, H. and Montes, J.S. (1998). “Overflow characteristics of circular weir: effect of inflow conditions”, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE, 124(3), 152-162.
2
Creager, W.P. (1917). Engineering of masonry dams, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.
3
Escande, L. and Sananes, F. (1959). “Etudes des Seuils Déversants à Fente Aspiratrice. ('Weirs with suction slots.')”, Journal La Houille Blanche, Dec., No. Special B, 892-902 (in French).
4
Esmaili, K., Naghavi, B., KouroshVahid, F. and Yazdi, J. (2010). “Experimental and numerical modeling of flow pattern on circular weir”, Journal of Water and Soil, 24(1), 166-179.
5
Fawer, C. (1937). “Etude de quelques ecoulements permanents a filets courbes (Study of some steady flows with curved streamlines)”, Thesis, Lausanne, Switzerland, Imprimerie La Concorde (in French).
6
Heidarpour, M., Afzalimehr, H. and Khorami, E. (2002). “Applied of flow function around cylindrical weir crest”, Journal of Technical and Natural Resource, 6(3), 51-61.
7
Heidarpour, M., Chamani, M.R. and Khorami, E. (2006). “Characteristics of circular-crested and cylindrical weirs”, Journal of Agriculture Science and Natural Resource, 12(6), 21-30
8
Othman, Kh.I., Tahsen, A.Ch. and Ibrahim, A.I.Al-H. (2010). “Effect of size and surface roughness of cylindrical weirs on overflow characteristics”, Al-Rafidian Engineering Journal, 19(2), 77-89.
9
Ramamurthy, A.S. and VO, N.D. (1993). “Characteristics of circular crested weir”, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. ASCE, 119(9), 1055-1063.
10
Raupach, M.R., Antonia, R.A. and Rajagopalan, S. (1991). “Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers”, Applied Mechanics Reviews, 44(1), 1-25
11
Rehbok, T. (1929). “The river hydraulic laboratory of the Technical University of Karlsruhe, hydraulic laboratory practice”, ASME, New York, N.Y, 111-242.
12
Rouve, G. and Indlekofer, H. (1974). “Discharge over Straight Weirs with Semi cylindrical Crest”, Der Bauinge nieur, 49(7), 250-256, (in Germany).
13
Sarginson, E.J. (1972). “The influence of surface tension on weir flow”, Hydraulic Research Delft, The Netherlands, 10(4), 431-446.
14
Tahmassebii, S. (2010). “Experimental Study of effect of weir crest roughness on separation region in broad crested weir”, MSc. Thesis, University of Shahid Chamran, Ahvaz, Iran.
15
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Probabilistic Assessment of Pseudo-Static Design of Gravity-Type Quay Walls
Failure of the quay walls due to earthquakes results in severe economic loss. Because of hazards threatening such inexpensive nodes of national and international transportation networks, seismic design of quay walls is still an evolving topic in marine structural engineering. This study investigates the sensitivity of the gravity-type quay wall stability respect to uncertain soil and seismic properties using ultimate limit-sate pseudo-static design process. Stability is defined in terms of safety factor against sliding (sfs), overturning (sfo) and exceeding bearing capacity (sfb). In order to assess the forces exerting on quay walls, to be more accurate, pore water pressure ratio, horizontal and vertical inertia forces, fluctuating and non-fluctuating components of hydraulic and soil pressure were considered. It was found that the increase of water depth in front of the quay, vertical and horizontal seismic coefficients, and pore water pressure ratio play important roles in reduction of all mentioned safety factors. Increase of specific weight of the rubble mound, backfill and foundation soil, friction angle of wall-foundation/seabed interface and wall back-face/backfill interface and friction angle of backfill soil, lead safety factors to magnify. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis was also performed using the tornado diagrams. Results of this study could give designers insights into the importance of uncertain soil and seismic factors, in order to choose geometry of the design in a way that its analysis and assessment is less relied on severely uncertain parameters and to introduce more reliable and economic quay walls.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40506_45c562bfd6bb7b94e85863afc396a499.pdf
2013-12-01
209
219
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.008
Quay Wall
Safety Factor
seismic design
Stability
Ultimate Limit-State
Uncertainty
Mohammad Ali
Lotfollahi-Yaghin
lotfollahi@tabrizu.ac.ir
1
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Mastoureh
Gholipour Salimi
salimi_iust@yahoo.com
2
Faculty of civil Engineering, university of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
AUTHOR
Hamid
Ahmadi
h-ahmadi2@tabrizu.ac.ir
3
Faculty of civil Engineering, university of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
AUTHOR
Alyami, M., Rouainia, M. and Wilkinson, S.M. (2009). “Numerical analysis of deformation behavior of quay walls under earthquake loading”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29, 525-536.
1
Alyami, M., Wilkinson, S.M., Rouainia, M. and Cai, F. (2007). “Simulation of seismic behavior of gravity quay wall using a generalized plasticity model”, The 4th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Paper No. 1734, Thessaloniki, Greece, 25-28 June.
2
Bowles, E.J. (1996). Foundation analysis and design, 5th Edition, MCGraw-Hill, Inc.
3
Chen, C.H. (2000). “Preliminary analysis for quay wall movement in Taichung Harbour during the September 21, 1999, Chi-Chi earthquake”, Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology, 2(1), 43-54.
4
Choudhury, D. and Ahmad, S.M. (2007). “Stability of waterfront retaining wall subjected to pseudo-static earthquake forces”, Ocean Engineering, 34, 1947-1954.
5
Choudhury, D. and Ahmad, S.M. (2008). “Stability of waterfront retaining wall subjected to pseudo-dynamic earthquake forces”, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, 134(4), 252-260.
6
Ebeling, R.M. and Morrison Jr., E.E. (1992). “The seismic design of waterfront retaining structures”, US Army Technical Report ITL-92-11, Washington, DC.
7
Iai, S., Ichii, K., Liu, H. and Morita, T. (1995). “Effective stress analyses of port structures”, Soils and Foundations, Special Issue on Geotechnical Aspects of the January 17, Japanese Society, Hyogoken-Nambu Earthquake, 2, 97-114.
8
Jones A.L., Kramer S.L. and Arduino, P. (2002). “Estimation of uncertainty in geotechnical properties for performance-based earthquake engineering”, Report 2002/16, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley.
9
Kim, S.R., Jang, I.S., Chung, C.K. and Kim, M.M. (2005). “Evaluation of seismic displacements of quay walls”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 25, 451–459.
10
Kim, S.R., Kwon, S.O. and Kim, M.M. (2004). “Evaluation of force components acting on gravity type quay walls during earthquakes”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 24, 835-866.
11
Kramer, S.L. (1996). Geotechnical earthquake engineering, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall.
12
Kramer, S.L. and Elgamal, A.W. (2001). “Modeling soil liquefaction hazards for performance based earthquake engineering”, Report 2001/13, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley.
13
Lee, T.H. and Mosalam, K.M. (2006). “Probabilistic seismic evaluation of reinforced concrete structural components and systems”, Report 2006/04, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley.
14
Mylonakis, G., Kloukinas, P. and Papantonopoulos, C. (2007). “An alternative to the Mononnobe- Okabe equations for seismic earth pressures”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 27, 957-969.
15
Porter K.A. and Beck J.L. (2002). “Shaikhutdinov RV. Sensitivity of building loss estimates to major uncertain variables”, Earthquake Spectra, 18(4), 719–43.
16
Quinn, A.D. (1972). Design and construction of ports and marine structures, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
17
Seed, H. and Whitman, R. (1970). “Design of earth retaining structures for dynamic loads”, ASCE Specialty Conference on Lateral Stresses in the Ground and Design of Earth Retaining Structures, Ithaca, N.Y., 103-147.
18
International Navigation Association, Working Group No. 34 of the Maritime Navigation Commission. (2001). PIANC, Seismic design guidelines for port structures, A.A. Balkema Publishers / Lisse / Abingdon / Exton (PA) / Tokyo.
19
Sowers, G.F. (1993). “Human factors in civil and geotechnical engineering failures”, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 119(2), 238-256.
20
Werner, S.D. (1998). “Seismic guidelines for ports”, Monograph No.12, New York, ASCE, Chapter 2.
21
Zangar, C.N. (1953). “Hydrodynamic pressures on dams due to horizontal earthquakes”, Proceedings of Experimental Stress Analysis, 10(2), 93-102.
22
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
The Effect of Dynamic Permeability on Velocity and Intrinsic Attenuation of Compressional Waves in Sand
Stress waves contain useful information about the properties of porous materials; they can be recovered through different non-destructive testing methods such as crosswell, vertical seismic profile, borehole logging as well as sonic tests. In all these methods, it is crucial to assess the effects of frequency on wave attributes including velocity and intrinsic attenuation. The dependency of permeability on frequency which is known as dynamic permeability and its effects on wave attributes of compressional waves are investigated in the present paper. Utilizing the dispersion relation derived for compressional waves, it is shown how the velocity and intrinsic attenuation of waves propagated in water saturated sand may be influenced by dynamic permeability. In low frequency range (viscous dominated flow regime), the dynamic permeability behaves like Darcy steady-state permeability and its effects on wave attributes are negligible. However, deviations from Darcy permeability start to occur at higher frequencies. Therefore, it is important to know how dynamic permeability controls the behavior of wave velocity and intrinsic attenuation in relatively high frequencies. For example, it is demonstrated that neglecting dynamic permeability results in overestimation of velocities of fast and slow waves in high frequency ranges (inertia dominated flow regime).
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40507_cdba0240b032e1d0524b93819d6ba67e.pdf
2013-12-01
221
231
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.009
Attenuation
Compressional Waves
Dynamic Permeability
Sand
Velocity
Hasan
Ghasemzadeh
ghasemzadeh@kntu.ac.ir
1
Assistant Professor, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Civil Engineering Faculty, Tehran, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Amir
Abounouri
a.a.abounouri@sina.kntu.ac.ir
2
MSc Graduate, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Civil Engineering Faculty, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Allard, J., Henry, M., Tizianel, J., Kelders, L. and Lauriks, W. (1998). “Sound propagation in air saturated random packings of beads”, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 104, 2004–2007.
1
Berryman, J.G. (1980). “Confirmation of Biot's theory”, Applied Physics Letter, 37(4), 382-384.
2
Biot, M.A. (1956a). “Theory of Propagation of Elastic Waves in Fluid-Saturated Porous Solid: Low Frequency Range”, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 28, 168–178.
3
Biot, M.A. (1956b). “Theory of Propagation of Elastic Waves in Fluid-Saturated Porous Solid: Higher frequency range”, Journal of Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 28, 179–191.
4
Chapman, A. and Higdon, J. (1992). “Oscillatory stokes flow in periodic porous media”, Physics of Fluids, 4(10), 2099–2116.
5
Charlaix, E., Kushnick, A. and Stokes, J. (1988). “Experimental study of dynamic permeability in porous media”, Physical Review Letters, 61, 1595–1598.
6
Ghasemzadeh, H. and Abounouri, A.A. (2012). “Effect of subsurface hydrological properties on velocity and attenuation of compressional and shear wave in fluid-saturated viscoelastic porous media”, Journal of Hydrology, 460–461, 110–116.
7
Iversen, N. and Jørgensen, B.B. (1993). “Diffusion coefficients of sulfate and methane in marine sediments: Influence of porosity”, Geochimica et Cosmochimica, 57, 571–578.
8
Johnson, D.L., Hemmick, D. and Kojima, H. (1994). “Probing porous media with first and second sound. i. dynamic permeability”, Journal of Applied Physics, 76, 104–114.
9
Johnson, D.L., Koplik, J. and Dashen, R. (1987). “Theory of Dynamic Permeability and Tortuosity in Fluid–Saturated Porous–Media”, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 176, 379–402.
10
Kim, S.H., Kim, K.J. and Blouin, S.E. (2002). “Analysis of wave propagation in saturated porous media. I. Theoretical solution”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 191, 4061–4073.
11
Lo, W.C., Sposito, G. and Majer, E. (2006). “Low-frequency dilatational wave propagation through fully-saturated poroelastic media”, Advances in Water Resources, 29, 408–416.
12
Lo, W.C., Yeh, C.L. and Jan, C.D. (2008). “Effect of soil texture and excitation frequency on the propagation and attenuation of acoustic waves at saturated conditions”, Journal of Hydrology, 357, 270–281.
13
Sheng, P. and Zhou, M.Y. (1988). “Dynamic permeability in porous medium”, Physical Review Letters, 61, 1591–1594.
14
Smeulders, D.M.J. (1992). “On Wave Propagation in Saturated and Partially Saturated Porous Media”, PhD Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology.
15
Theodorakopoulos, D.D. and Beskos, D.E. (2006). “Application of Biot’s Poroelasticity to Some Soil Dynamics Problems in Civil Engineering”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 26, 666–679.
16
Verruijt, A. (2010). An Introduction to Soil Dynamics, Springer, New York.
17
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Are There Any Differences in Seismic Performance Evaluation Criteria for Concrete Arch Dams?
Differences between stress-based and strain-based criteria are investigated in seismic performance evaluation of the arch dams in time domain. A numerical model of the coupled dam-reservoir-foundation system is prepared with the finite element technique. Reservoir is modeled using the Eulerian approach as a compressible domain, and the foundation rock is assumed to be massless. Dynamic equilibrium equations for the coupled system are solved using Newmark’s time integration algorithm. Seismic performance of the arch dam is evaluated according to parameters such as demand-capacity ratio, cumulative inelastic duration and overstressed (or overstrained) areas obtained from linear elastic analyses. The results show, although there are some similarities between stress-based and strain-based criteria, evaluation of the performance based on the strain gives different results which can be led to different decision making in dam safety related projects.
https://ceij.ut.ac.ir/article_40508_6ad354e8447599ffa90f44fa23593c22.pdf
2013-12-01
233
240
10.7508/ceij.2013.02.010
Arch Dam
Cumulative Inelastic Duration
Demand-Capacity Ratio
Seismic Performance Evaluation
Strain-Based Criteria
Masood
Heshmati
masood_heshmati@sina.kntu.ac.ir
1
K. N. Toosi University of Technology
AUTHOR
Mohammad Amin
Hariri Ardebili
mohammad.haririardebili@colorado.edu
2
University of Colorado ar Boulder
LEAD_AUTHOR
Hasan
Mirzabozorg
mirzabozorg@kntu.ac.ir
3
K. N. Toosi University of Technology
AUTHOR
Seyed Mahdi
Seyed Kolbadi
mahdi_kolbadi@sina.kntu.ac.ir
4
K. N. Toosi University of Technology
AUTHOR
Bayraktar, A., Sevim, B., Altunısık A.C., Turker, T., Kartal, M.E., Akkose, M. and Bilici, Y. (2009). “Comparison of near and far fault ground motion effects on the seismic performance evaluation of dam-reservoir-foundation systems”, Dam Engineering, 19(4), 201-239.
1
Chen, D.H., Du, C.B., Yuan, J.W. and Hong, Y.W. (2012). “An investigation into the influence of damping on the earthquake response analysis of a high arch dam”, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 16(3), 329-349.
2
Fok, K.L. and Chopra, A.K. (1986). “Hydrodynamic and foundation flexibility effects in earthquake response of arch dams”, Journal of Structural Engineering, 112(8), 1810-1828.
3
Ghanaat, Y. (2002). “Seismic performance and damage criteria for concrete dams”, Proceedings of the 3rd US-Japan Workshop on Advanced Research on Earthquake Engineering for Dams. San Diego, California.
4
Ghanaat, Y. (2004). “Failure modes approach to safety evaluation of dams”, Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on earthquake engineering, Vancouver, B.C., Canada.
5
Hall, R.L., Matheu, E.E. and Liu, T.C. (1999). “Performance evaluation of the seismic response of concrete gravity dams”, International Conference on Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure Systems, Chongqing, China.
6
Hariri-Ardebili, M.A. and Mirzabozorg, H. (2011). “investigation of endurance time method capability in seismic performance evaluation of concrete arch dams”, Dam Engineering, 22(1), 35-64.
7
Hariri-Ardebili, M.A. and Mirzabozorg, H. (2012). “Effects of near-fault ground motions in seismic performance evaluation of a symmetry arch dam”, Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 49(5), 192-199.
8
Hariri-Ardebili, M.A. and Mirzabozorg, H. (2013). “A comparative study of the seismic stability of coupled arch dam-foundation-reservoir systems using infinite elements and viscous boundary models”, International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamic, 13(6), DOI: 10.1142/S0219455413500326.
9
Hariri-Ardebili, M.A., Kolbadi, S.M., Heshmati, M. and Mirzabozorg, M. (2012). “Nonlinear analysis of concrete structural components using co-axial rotating smeared crack model”, Journal of Applied Science, 12(3), 21-232.
10
Hariri-Ardebili, M.A., Mirzabozorg, H. and Kianoush, M.R. (2013). “Seismic analysis of high arch dams considering contraction-peripheral joints coupled effects”, Central European Journal of Engineering, 3(3), 549-564.
11
Hariri-Ardebili, M.A., Mirzabozorg, H., Ghaemian, M., Akhavan, M. and Amini, R. (2011). “Calibration of 3D FE model of DEZ high arch dam in thermal and static conditions using instruments and site observation”, Proceeding of the 6th International Conference in Dam Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal.
12
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